地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (4): 407-417.doi: 10.11821/xb200704007

• 人文地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

20 世纪90 年代广州市从业人员的社会空间分异

魏立华1, 丛艳国2, 李志刚3, 闫小培3   

  1. 1. 华南理工大学建筑学院,广州510641;
    2. 华南农业大学林学院,广州510642;
    3. 中山大学城市与区域研究中心,广州510275
  • 收稿日期:2006-09-24 修回日期:2007-01-05 出版日期:2007-04-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:魏立华(1977-), 男, 博士, 讲师, 主要从事城市社会空间、城市规划与管治等方面的研究。 E-mail: weilh@scut.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(50608033; 40601033)

Socio-spatial Differ entiation of Professionals of Guangzhou in the 1990s

WEI Lihua1, CONG Yanguo2, LI Zhigang3, YAN Xiaopei3   

  1. 1. College of Architecture & Civil Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China;
    2. College of Forestry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China;
    3. Center for Urban & Regional Studies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2006-09-24 Revised:2007-01-05 Online:2007-04-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.50608033; No.40601033

摘要:

1990 年以来中国城市的内城区传统工业向郊区外溢,郊区大量劳动密集型国际资本进驻等因素带来城市不同职业从业者的居住空间格局的重构。以1990 年、2000 年广州市“街道层面”的两次人口普查数据为主要数据源,借用经济学中的区位商指标,分析1990~2000 年广州市不同职业从业者的居住空间分异特征,发现工业、低端服务业、高端服务业及政府 机关职员等从业者呈现出差异化的空间分异特征。工业从业者的居住空间从内城区向近郊区、远郊区等转移,低端服务业从业者的居住地一直高度集中于内城区,高端服务业从业者聚居于政府机关附近和高校、科研机构密集区,政府机关职员居住区完全与政府机关相重合。就业地与居住地的临近性是20 世纪90 年代广州城市从业者居住空间最为显著的特征。旧城区产业结构调整、城市空间扩展、郊区国际生产资本进驻、政府为迎合全球化而进行的政策及空间的调整、土地开发与住房商品化以及原有国家事业机关“单位制”居住模式的惯性等成为1990~2000 年广州市不同职业从业者社会空间分异的主要原因。基于区位商的方法来分析不同职业从业者的居住空间分异,为深入解析城市社会空间分异提供了新的研究思路与方法。

关键词: 职业空间分异, 区位商, 机制, 广州市

Abstract:

Under a diversity of impacts such as the industrialization of suburbs and economic globalization, China's urban socio-spatial structure has undergone tremendous restructurings in the 1990s. Using the 1990 and 2000 census of China, this paper examines the spatial differentiation residents working in different sectors of Guangzhou. It is found that industrial staff, high-level service workers, low-level service workers and governmental officials show quite different spatial patterns. First, the residential locations of industrial workers move from the central city towards the suburbs, especially Baiyun and Huangpu districts, while that of low-level service workers remain in the inner city, which is the traditional central business district (CBD) of Guangzhou; in contrast, high-level service workers accumulate around government buildings, universities and academic institutions, especially Dongshan District, Wushan of Tianhe District, etc; and governmental officials mainly live around their working places. In this sense, it is argued that one of the main features of Guangzhou's distribution of different workers' residence is the close connection between working places and residential areas. The underlying reasons are attributed to the sector restructuring of the inner city, the urban rapid sprawl, the infill of FDI within the suburbs, the adjustment of government development strategies and urban planning, land use as well as housing marketization, and the path-dependency of the 'work-unit' system. Using location quotient to analyze the residential differentiation of different professionals, it provided new research idea and method for further analyzing urban socio-spatial differentiation.

Key words: socio-spatial differentiation of professionals, location quotient, mechanism, Guangzhou