地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (3): 227-242.doi: 10.11821/xb200703001

• 环境考古 •    下一篇

湖北旧石器至战国时期人类遗址分布与环境的关系

朱诚1, 钟宜顺2, 郑朝贵2, 马春梅1, 李兰1   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京210093
    2. 滁州学院地理系, 滁州239012
  • 收稿日期:2006-12-25 修回日期:2007-01-16 出版日期:2007-03-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:朱诚(1954-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师。1990 年毕业于北京大学地理系获博士学位, 中国地理学会会员, 主要从 事地貌与第四纪地质研究。E-mail: zhuchengnj@yahoo.com.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重大研究计划项目(90411015); 教育部高等学校博士点基金项目(20050284011); 中国科 学院地球环境研究所黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLLQG0503); 南京大学"985" 自然 地理学科建设与南京大学现代分析中心测试基金项目

Relationship of Archaeological Sites Distr ibution and Environment from the Paleolithic Age to the Warring States Time in Hubei Province

ZHU Cheng1, ZHONG Yishun2, ZHENG Chaogui2, MA Chunmei1, LI Lan1   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Department of Geography, Chuzhou College, Chuzhou 239012, China
  • Received:2006-12-25 Revised:2007-01-16 Online:2007-03-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    The Key Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.90411015; University Doctoral Foundation of China, No.20050284011; Open Foundation of the State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology from the Institute of Earth Environment, CAS, No.SKLLQG0503; Physical Geography of "985" Item and Foundation of Modern Analyses Center of Nanjing University

摘要:

湖北旧石器时代至战国时期1362 处遗址时空分布的总趋势是从西往东、从高往低逐渐增加的。旧石器时代海拔50~500 m 的遗址数占当时遗址总数的78%, 而新石器时代至战国 时代71%~95%的遗址分布于0~200 m 的海拔区。该区遗址时空分布变化主要受两方面影响: 一是各时代人类都需要选择既靠近水源、又便于抵御洪水的河流1~2 级阶地为生存地点。而 全新世以来受区域构造抬升影响, 河流下切会形成新河谷, 且构造运动稳定期河流侧旁侵蚀与堆积也导致大量新阶地在低海拔区增多。因此, 人类为适应河流阶地位置变化的迁徙, 导致该省中东部低地区遗址逐渐增多。二是该区人类遗址时空分布变化还受气候条件影响。旧石器文化遗址主要分布在十堰东北部汉水流域以及荆州西南和荆门以东, 从河流地貌发育角度看, 该时期遗址分布在较高位置与此时期河流主要分布在较高地势区有关。城背溪文化时期原有的旧石器遗址分布区此时的遗址分布寥寥无几, 相反, 在西南部宜昌附近的长江沿岸却明显增多, 并成为该时期一个重要的分布区。大九湖孢粉谱的特征表明, 城背溪文化期遗 址数只有23 处主要与当时处于全新世湿热期降水量较大以及洪水较多有关。大溪文化、屈家岭文化和石家河文化对应于大九湖孢粉带Ⅳ的中上部, 这一阶段总体上气候适宜, 是有利于农业文明发展的全新世暖湿期, 在湖北中东部地区各时代遗址数递增显著, 但屈家岭文化时期, 原先分布在长江三峡地区的34 处大溪文化遗址有32 处消失, 而在襄樊—荆门—孝感一线以北的较高地势区却猛然增长了近90 处, 此种变化主要与当时水域范围扩大有关。楚文化时期对应于大九湖孢粉带V, 处于全新世温干气候阶段, 但当时的温湿条件仍有利于农业耕种, 故该时期遗址数骤增至593 处。湖北东南部海拔0~50 m 的湖群区因地势低洼, 洪涝严重, 所以成为历代遗址分布最少的地区。

关键词: 湖北, 旧石器至战国时期, 考古遗址, 河流地貌, 孢粉记录, 环境演变

Abstract:

1362 archaeological sites from the Paleolithic age to the Warring States time in Hubei Province increase gradually from west to east and from high to low. The number of Paleolithic sites with altitudes of 50-500 m account for 78% of the total, while 71%-95% of the sites from the Neolithic age to the Warring States time are distributed at the areas of 0-200 m. The temporal-spatial distribution of archeological sites in this area is mainly affected by two factors. For one thing, the human beings of every age need to choose the first on the second terrace as living sites which are near to the water source and are easy to withstand flood. Additionally, since downcutting of rivers can form new river valley and lateral erosion and accumulation of river in stable time of tectonic movement can result in gathering of many new terraces. So, the human beings migrated to adapt to the change of terrace location, which led to the number of sites increasing gradually in the lower areas of the central and eastern parts of this province. For other things, the temporal-spatial distribution of archeological sites in this area is affected by the climate condition. The Paleolithic sites are distributed mostly in the Hanjiang River Basin in northeastern Shiyan, southeast of Jingzhou and east of Jinmen, which is because rivers were distributed in higher areas in this period. During Chengbeixi cultural period, the sites are rare in the quondam Paleolithic sites distribution area, but manifold obviously along the Yangtze River near the southwest Yichang contrarily. The pollen record of Dajiuhu Lake indicates that only 23 Chengbeixi cultural sites may be related to more precipitation and flood during the Holocene wet and hot period. Daxi Culture, Qujialing Culture and Shijiahe Culture are corresponding to middle and top of the Dajiuhu pollen Zone IV, during which the climate is in order as a whole and is propitious to agricultural development. In the Qujialing Culture period, 32 of the former 34 Daxi Cultural sites disappeared, while 90 sites increase abruptly in the higher highlands in the north of Xiangfan-Jinmen-Xiaogan, which may respect with enlarging of water areas. Chu Culture period is corresponding to Dajiuhu pollen Zone V, which is warm and dry Holocene phase, but it seems that the climate condition is propitious to agricultural cultivation and the number of archeological sites increases heavily to 593. In addition, there are the least archaeological sites in the lake areas of the southeast Hubei Province because of low-lying topography with altitudes of 1-50 m and severest flood.

Key words: Hubei Province, from the Paleolithic age to the Warring States time, archeological sites, river geomorphology, pollen, environmental evolution