地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (2): 200-210.doi: 10.11821/xb200702009

• 人文地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海从业劳动力空间分布变动分析

王桂新, 魏星   

  1. 复旦大学人口研究所、城市与区域发展研究中心, 上海200433
  • 收稿日期:2006-05-25 修回日期:2006-12-10 出版日期:2007-02-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:王桂新(1953-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员, 主要研究方向:人口迁移与城市化、城市与区域 发展。E-mail: wanggx@fudan.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40371047); 国家社科基金重点项目(05AJY002); 复旦大学“ 金苗” 项目 (EYH3710013)

Change of Labor Force Spatial Structure in Shanghai from 1996 to 2001

WANG Guixin, WEI Xing   

  1. Institute of Population Research, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • Received:2006-05-25 Revised:2006-12-10 Online:2007-02-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 40371047; Key Program of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.05AJY002; Golden Seed Project of Fudan University, No. EYH3710013

摘要:

根据地方专业化指数与负指数函数模型方法, 利用上海市1996 年和2001 年两次基本单位普查基于工作地的从业劳动力数据, 分别以不同圈层、区县及乡镇街道为基本地域单元, 系统地考察了1996~2001年间上海从业劳动力的空间分布及其变动特征。发现上海从业劳动 力分布总体上呈都心区密度最高、由此向外依次降低的负指数函数分布的圈层结构模式。其 变动呈现都心区密度下降、周边地区上升、从业劳动力由都心区逐步向周边地区扩散的均衡化趋势。第二、三产业从业劳动力的分布变动互不相同: 第二产业主要表现为由中心城区向郊区扩散的较大范围的单向均衡化变动; 第三产业从业劳动力空间分布的变动则相对更向中心城区集聚, 表现为在距离市中心15 km 圈内由都心区向其边缘区扩散、15 km 圈以外地区特别是远郊区则反呈趋向中心城区的集中化变动。上海城市功能分异正向中心城区以“商” 为主、郊区以“工”为主, 空间模式由单中心结构向多中心结构演变。从业劳动力的这种空 间分布模式及其变动趋势, 基本符合大城市空间发展的一般规律。

关键词: 上海, 从业劳动力, 空间分布, 城市空间

Abstract:

Using location specialization index and neg-exponential function, this paper analyzes the labor force spatial distribution characteristics and its change in Shanghai during 1996-2001 based on the work place data of Establishment Census of the People's Republic of China, Shanghai Municipality in 1996 and 2001. From three different dimensions: circles, districts and counties, the paper analyzes the change and characteristics of labor force spatial structure of Shanghai. It is found out that from 1996 to 2001, the labor force density of Shanghai decreases from urban centre with distance, with the highest level in urban core, which fits neg-exponential function curve. The density of inner city shows a downtrend, its edge area uptrend; and the labor force disperses from the urban centre to suburbs, the density difference between centre and suburbs reduces, which shows a homogenizing trend. The labor force spatial distribution trends differ between the secondary industry and tertiary industry. The labor force in the secondary industry disperses from central city to suburbs and exhibits one-way equilibrating change in a larger area. The labor force in the tertiary industry disperses from urban core to its edge area within a distance of 15 km; oppositely it has a centralizing trend to inner city out of a distance of 15 km, especially in exurban area. The function of Shanghai metropolis changes to such a pattern that commerce is becoming a main industry in central districts and manufacture in suburban districts. And spatial model is evolving from monocentric city to polycentric city. Basically the spatial distribution of labor force in Shanghai and its trends accord with the general spatial developing rules of a metropolis, which will benefit Shanghai's sustainable development and spatial reconstruction.

Key words: Shanghai, labor force, spatial distribution, urban space