地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (1): 62-71.doi: 10.11821/xb200701007

• 长江研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江中游马口—田家镇河段40 年来河道演变

张强1, 施雅风1,2, 姜彤1, 李茂田3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京210008;
    2. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 兰州730000;
    3. 华东师范大学教育部地理信息开放实验室, 上海200062
  • 收稿日期:2006-08-20 修回日期:2006-09-28 出版日期:2007-01-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:张强(1974-), 男, 博士, 主要从事气候变化与水资源、河道水沙输运、河床演变地貌水文效应等研究。 E-mail: zhangqiang@nju.org.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所所长专项研究基金

Channel Changes of the Makou-Tianjiazhen Reach dur ing the Past 40 Years in the Middle Yangtze River

ZHANG Qiang1, SHI Yafeng1,2, JIANG Tong1, LI Maotian3   

  1. 1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China;
    2. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2006-08-20 Revised:2006-09-28 Online:2007-01-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    Director Foundation for Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, No.S260018

摘要:

运用地理信息系统(GIS) 与数字高程模型(DEM) 分析了马口—田家镇河段1963 年、1972 年与2002 年河道地形数据, 较为系统地研究了该河段过去40 年冲淤时空变化。研究结 果认为, 1972 年与1963 相比冲刷量达到789.9 hm3, 冲刷面积为39.7×104 m2; 2002 年与1963 年相比冲刷量达到1196.5 hm3, 冲刷面积为59.4×104 m2; 2002 年与1972 年相比冲刷量 达到960 hm3, 冲刷面积为54.3×104 m2。由以上结果认为, 马口—田家镇河段近40 年来以冲刷为主; 河道冲淤变化以马口卡口与田家镇卡口等窄深河段最为剧烈, 宽浅河段与顺直河 段冲淤变化较为和缓, 冲淤变化幅度不大; 卡口上、下端以淤积过程为主, 而卡口顶冲水流的顶弯部位以冲刷过程为主。研究河段冲淤变化受上游来水来沙条件影响很大, 对未来三峡工程建成后, 三峡大坝下游来水来沙以及研究河段冲淤变化的影响研究提供借鉴。

关键词: 长江, 马口—田家镇河段, GIS, DEM 模型, 河道演变

Abstract:

Quantitative analysis was performed on filling and scouring process for the river reach between Makou and Tianjiazhen, the middle Yangtze River with the help of GIS and DEM technology. The research results indicate that the river reach between Makou and Tianjiazhen was dominated by the scouring process, and the magnitude of scouring is increasing over time. The intensity of scouring process is more in the deep and narrower river reach than shallower and wider ones. The river reach in the Makou and Tianjiazhen river knot is in frequent scouring and filling process, however the river reach upper to the Makou and lower to the Tianjiazhen river knot is in moderate scouring and filling process. The river reach just upstream or downstream to the river knot (e.g. Makou and Tianjiazhen river knot in this research) is dominated by filling process and the river reach in the river knot is dominated by scouring process. Research results indicate no changes happen in the boundary of the river but the scouring and the filling magnitude in specific river channel is strong. The filling and scouring process of the study river reach is greatly impacted by the sediments and water from the upstream of the study river reach. The construction of the Three Gorges Dam just upstream to Yichang will cause further decrease of the release of sediment load to the middle and the lower Yangtze River basin, which will further intensify the scouring process of the river channel in the study river reach.

Key words: Makou-Tianjiazhen river reach, GIS, DEM, changes of river channel