地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (12): 1259-1270.doi: 10.11821/xb200612003

• 陆路交通与产业集聚 • 上一篇    下一篇

产业地理集聚与外商直接投资产业分布——以北京市制造业为例

贺灿飞,刘洋   

  1. 北京大学环境学院城市与区域规划系,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2006-06-08 修回日期:2006-10-30 出版日期:2006-12-25 发布日期:2010-09-01
  • 作者简介:贺灿飞 (1972-), 男, 江西永新人, 副教授, 美国亚利桑那州立大学博士, 中国地理学会和美国地理学会会员, 主要从事经济地理、产业和区域经济等研究。E-mail: hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目 (40535027); 国家自然科学基金项目 (40401015)

Industrial Agglomeration and Sectoral Distribution of Foreign Direct Investment: A Case Study of Beijing

HE Canfei, LIU Yang   

  1. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2006-06-08 Revised:2006-10-30 Online:2006-12-25 Published:2010-09-01
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40535027; No.40401015

摘要:

外商直接投资理论强调跨国公司的垄断优势和东道国的区位优势决定外商直接投资的产业分布。本文认为外商直接投资的产业分布还可能取决于因产业地理集聚和地方化贸易所形成的竞争优势。本文采用1999~2004年北京外商直接投资的产业流资料建立面板数据回归模型,引入产业地理集聚系数、产业联系等变量来研究影响外资产业分布的因素。统计分析表明,在空间上比较集聚、产业内联系较强的产业能够吸引更多的外商直接投资;前期外商投资对于跟进投资具有显著的示范效应、信息溢出效应以及产业联系效应,从而直接导致外资的产业累积效应。外商也强烈偏好资本技术密集型产业以及在国际市场上具有显著比较优势、盈利率高的产业。外商在充分利用其垄断优势、产业比较优势和竞争优势的同时,也尽量避开实际劳动成本较高和进入壁垒较高的垄断性产业。本文的结果显示,发挥本地优势,完善产业配套,促成产业集群是提升城市吸引外商直接投资的有效途径。

关键词: 产业集聚, 产业关联, 外商直接投资, 北京

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the systematic forces that determine the sectoral distribution of foreign investment. Unlike the existing literature, this study highlights the importance of industrial agglomeration and industrial linkage in attracting foreign investment. Using a panel dataset of two-digit manufacturing industries in Beijing during the period 1999-2004, this study finds that geographically agglomerated industries with strong intra-industrial linkages attract much foreign investment. Previous foreign investments have demonstration effects, information spillover effects and linkage effects, leading to industrial concentration of foreign investment. Investors also highly favor capital and technology intensive industries and are drawn to the most profitable and exporting industries, but avoid industries with high effective wage rates and high entry barriers. This study provides strong evidence to support that competitive and comparative advantages of local industries are critical to allure foreign investment. The existence of industrial clusters certainly heightens a city's attractiveness to foreign investment.

Key words: industrial agglomeration, industrial linkage, foreign direct investment, Beijing