地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (10): 1011-1024.doi: 10.11821/xb200610001

• 城市地理 •    下一篇

开发区发展与西安城市经济社会空间极化分异

王慧   

  1. 西北大学城市与资源学系,西安 710069
  • 收稿日期:2006-05-17 修回日期:2006-07-25 出版日期:2006-10-25 发布日期:2010-09-01
  • 作者简介:王慧 (1965-), 女, 博士, 副教授,主要从事城市地理、城市与区域发展问题研究。 E-mail: wanghui_618@yahoo.com.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40271046) 及其配套项目 (40310104018); 国家教育部“十五”规划项目 (01JC790012)

Rise of New Special Development Zones and Polarization of Socio-economic Space in Xi'an

WANG Hui   

  1. Dept. of Urban & Resource Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China
  • Received:2006-05-17 Revised:2006-07-25 Online:2006-10-25 Published:2010-09-01
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40271046; No. 40310104018; Project of the Ministry of Education, No.01JC790012

摘要:

从阐释开发区“特区”运作机制、“新经济”型产业结构、配套住宅开发策略等特有开发模式及内在结构特性入手,以西安市为实证案例,以翔实的调研数据为支撑,剖析了开发区建设发展与城市经济—社会空间极化分异之关联及其典型过程与效应;并通过开发区与非开发区、新城与老城、新经济区与旧产业区之间在投资强度、发展速度、软硬环境、形象面貌、经济活力与潜力、人口成分与素质等诸多方面分异对比日益鲜明的一系列事实,论证了开发区建设发展已成为强化凸显当代中国城市经济—社会空间极化演变的机制之一。研究结果有助于更深入全面地认识评估“开发区”——这一机制独特、存在广泛、极富改革开放新时期特色的城市发展模式之影响与绩效。

关键词: 开发区, 城市经济—社会空间, 极化分异, 西安市

Abstract:

New Special Development Zones (NSDZs) have become a distinctive, popular, significant urban development model, also been an activator of urban transformation, in China's opening and reform era. Taking the city of Xi'an as a case, through analyzing the NSDZs' particular operation mechanisms and structural features, such as their privileged status as "special policy districts", their competitive economic structure as "new economy" space, and their strategies of commercial housing development together with industrial development, the impacts of NSDZs on the ongoing socio-economic polarization of Chinese cities are underlined and discussed in this paper based on a variety of data sources and from a multi-dimensional perspective. The empirical results in Xi'an show that: (1) Because of the more favorable conditions and milieu created by the "special policy district" treatment, the NSDZs have become the major attraction to the construction of the capital and other investments, with the results that the NSDZs, compared with the "normal" areas in the city, have generally experienced a much faster economic growth as well as spatial expansion with more advanced infrastructure and better quality of built-environment. These make the NSDZs economically and physically outstanding from the rest part of the city. (2) The NSDZs have become the most concentrated area of knowledge-based, technology-intensive, world-market-related "new economies". This advantage of economic structure has not only become another reason for NSDZs' rapid economic growth, but also made the NSDZs special social areas with an obviously higher proportion of well-educated and highly-paid people. (3) The comparatively better quality of living environment and higher price of commercial housing developed in NSDZs have made the NSDZs a special new residential area of 'purer' private-property owners, and accordingly, more wealthy residents. Along with this, an income-based residential segregation is becoming manifest in the city. (4) In contrast to the above processes, the old areas (especially the old industrial sections) of the city have relatively fallen backward because of less investment, less productivity, less "new economies", and more low-income people. The spatial disparity within the city is therefore increasing. These facts indicate that the polarization of urban socio-economic space has been intensified with the rise of NSDZs. The findings and arguments of this research will be helpful for a better understanding and evaluation of the NSDZs-dominated urban development model existing in many Chinese cities.

Key words: new special development zones, urban socio-economic space, polarization, Xi’an