地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (7): 752-762.doi: 10.11821/xb200607009

• 生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

开封市的城市生态位变化分析

丁圣彦,李志恒   

  1. 河南大学环境与规划学院,开封 475001
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-24 修回日期:2006-04-17 出版日期:2006-07-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:丁圣彦 (1963-), 男, 河南商丘人, 教授, 博士生导师。主要从事景观生态学和植被生态学研究。已在《地理学报》、《植物学报》、《生态学报》等刊物上发表论文70多篇。E-mail: syding@henu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(30570301)

Niche Pattern Dynamics of Different Functional Modules in Kaifeng City

DING Shengyan, LI Zhiheng   

  1. College of Environment & Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China
  • Received:2005-12-24 Revised:2006-04-17 Online:2006-07-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.30570301

摘要:

城市生态位作为生态学重要理论之一,用于分析城市生态不同功能模块间竞争、演化等现象。通过以开封市不同功能模块为研究对象,在各模块污染指数和适宜度指数的基础上,运用生态位理论和方法,探讨改革开放以来,特别是近十年来开封市不同功能模块生态位格局变化规律,并对变化的原因进行了分析。研究结果表明:(1) 1994~2003年开封市自然生态环境系统各模块生态位呈上升趋势的有大气环境模块、城市绿化模块,而呈下降趋势的有水环境模块、声环境模块。(2) 1994~2003年开封市经济系统各模块生态位呈上升趋势的是第三产业模块,呈下降趋势的是第二产业模块,而变化不大的是第一产业模块。(3) 1994~2003年开封市社会系统各模块适宜度生态位呈上升趋势的有社会基础设施模块、社会资源配置模块、社会生产与保障模块,而呈下降趋势的只有人口模块。(4) 国家政策体制的改革是改革开放以来特别是近十年来开封市各功能模块生态位发生变化的最直接和最根本的原因。该研究不但对城市不同功能模块的宏观规划、经济发展和环境保护有具体的指导意义,而且对拓展城市生态学理论、研究复合生态系统的内在作用机制也同样具有重大的理论和现实意义。

关键词: 生态位, 格局, 功能模块, 动态, 开封市

Abstract:

The rising of urban complex ecosystem has built a bridge for the infiltration from ecologic theories to sociology and urban planning. Niche, as one of the most important theories of ecology, has the profound directive meaning in the study of human ecosystem, and preferably interprets the phenomenon such as competition, evolvement in different urban functional modules. This paper tries to introduce niche theory into the studies on the development of different urban functional modules, discusses the rules of niche pattern change of different functional modules in the city of Kaifeng in recent 10 years and analyses the reason for its changes. The results showed that: (1) The atmospheric niche and urban virescence niche increased, but the water niche and sound niche had a decreasing trend from 1994 to 2003 in the natural environmental system of Kaifeng. (2) The tertiary industrial niche went up, and secondary industrial niche came down, but primary industrial niche had a little change from 1994 to 2003 in the economic system of Kaifeng. (3) Social basic establishment suitable niche, social resource distribution suitable niche and social production and insurance suitable niche increased, but only population suitable niche went down from 1994 to 2003 in the social system of Kaifeng. (4) The reform of policy system was the direct and basic reason for niche pattern changes of different functional modules in Kaifeng in the last decade. The present study has not only concrete directing meaning in macroscopic planning, economic development and environmental protection of different urban functional modules, but also important theoretical and realistic meaning in developing urban ecologic theory and studying the inherent action mechanism of the complex ecosystem.

Key words: niche, pattern, functional modules, dynamics, Kaifeng city