地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (7): 687-696.doi: 10.11821/xb200607002

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

珠穆朗玛峰地区近34年来气候变化

杨续超1,2, 张镱锂1,3, 张玮1,2, 阎宇平4, 王兆锋1,2, 丁明军1,2, 除多5   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100039;
    3. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所,北京 100085;
    4. 中国气象局国家气候中心气候研究开放实验室,北京 100081;
    5. 西藏高原大气环境科学研究所,拉萨 850000
  • 收稿日期:2006-02-16 修回日期:2006-03-23 出版日期:2006-07-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 通讯作者: 张镱锂, 研究员, 中国地理学会会员。E-mail: zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:杨续超 (1980-), 男, 河南信阳人, 博士研究生, 主要从事土地覆被与气候变化的关系研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划 (2005CB422006); 中国气象局气候变化专项 (CCSF2005-2-QH38); 中国科学院知识创新工程 (KZCX3-SW-339)

Climate Change in Mt. Qomolangma Region in China during the Last 34 Years

YANG Xuchao1,2, ZHANG Yili1,3, ZHANG Wei1,2, YAN Yuping4, WANG Zhaofeng1,2, DING Mingjun1,2, CHU Duo5   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China;
    3. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, Beijing 100085, China;
    4. Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Center, CMA, Beijing 100081, China;
    5. Tibet Institute of Plateau Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Lhasa 850000, China
  • Received:2006-02-16 Revised:2006-03-23 Online:2006-07-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    The National Basic Research Program of China, No.2005CB422006; Climate Change Programme of The China Meteorological Administration (CMA), No.CCSF2005-2-QH38; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX3-SW-339

摘要:

利用珠穆朗玛峰地区中国境内5个气象站1971~2004年月平均气温、月平均最高、最低气温、月降水资料,采用气候线性趋势分析、滑动平均、低通滤波、累积距平等方法对珠峰地区近34年气候变化的时空分布特征进行了分析。结果表明:(1) 1971~2004年珠峰地区气温呈现出明显的上升趋势,其中海拔最高的定日站增幅最高,且以冬半年非生长季气温增长更为显著;(2) 近34年珠峰地区的变暖要明显早于中国及全球,且升温幅度更大;(3) 珠峰南、北翼降水变化趋势明显不同,北翼4站降水以增加趋势为主,但是总体显著性水平不高,而珠峰南翼的聂拉木降水以减少趋势为主,从90年代初开始降水以较大幅度减少;(4) 与已有研究结果比较发现:珠峰高海拔地区是中国同期升温最显著的区域。设立在海拔5032 m珠峰大本营的世界上海拔最高的无人值守实时自动气象站将会在全球变化监测中发挥重要的作用。

关键词: 珠穆朗玛峰地区, 气候变化, 气温, 降水

Abstract:

Using annual mean, maximum, minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 5 weather stations in Mt. Qomolangma region from 1971 to 2004, climatic linear trend, moving mean, low-pass filter and accumulated variance analysis methods, the spatial and temporal patterns of the climatic change in this region were analyzed. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1) There is an obvious ascending trend for the interannual variation of air temperature in Mt. Qomolangma region and the ascending trend of the highest station, Tingri, is most significant. The rate of increasing air temperature is 0.0234 oCa-1 in Mt. Qomolangma region and 0.0302 oCa-1 in Tingri. The air temperature increases more strongly in non-growing season. (2) Compared with China and the global mean, the warming of Mt. Qomolangma region occurred early. The linear rates of temperature increase in Mt. Qomolangma region exceed those for China and the global mean in the same period. This is attributed to the sensitivity of mountain regions to climate change. (3) The southern and northern parts of Mt. Qomolangma region are quite different in precipitation changes. Stations in the northern part show increasing trends but are not statistically significant. Nyalam in the southern part shows a decreasing trend and the sudden decrease of precipitation occurred in the early 1990s. (4) Compared with the previous studies, we find that the warming of Mt. Qomolangma high-elevation region is most significant in China in the same period. The highest automatic meteorological comprehensive observation station in the world that was set up at the base camp of Mt. Qomolangma with an elevation of 5032 m above sea level will play an important role in monitoring the global climate change.

Key words: precipitation, Mt. Qomolangma region, climate change, temperature