地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (6): 874-584.doi: 10.11821/xb200606011

• 人口与城市 • 上一篇    

中国东北地区城市地理基本框架

王士君, 宋飏   

  1. 东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院,长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2005-10-11 修回日期:2006-01-17 出版日期:2006-06-25 发布日期:2006-06-25
  • 作者简介:王士君 (1963-), 男, 黑龙江省延寿人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员, 主要从事经济地理和城市地理学研究。E-mail: wangsj@nenu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40471041)

Basic Frame of the Urban Geography of Northeast China

WANG Shijun, SONG Yang   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2005-10-11 Revised:2006-01-17 Online:2006-06-25 Published:2006-06-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40471041

摘要:

从东北地区城市地理框架的形成和演变过程出发,对东北地区城市体系框架、中心城市和大都市区、城市群和城市组群等城市地理问题进行了研究。结果表明,东北地区城市地理框架的形成演变过程分为三个时期,即古代城镇形成时期—近代城市形成时期—现代城镇体系形成发展时期。将城市体系结构框架归纳为:自上而下先快后缓的城市化进程,“弱金字塔”型的等级规模结构,沿铁路分布的“T”型空间结构,由“单一”向“新型”发展的城市职能结构。东北地区以哈尔滨、长春、沈阳、大连为中心城市的“四城市时代”已经到来,三省GDP向四城市高度集中,并且依托四市正在形成发展为“大哈尔滨”、“大长春”、“沈阳经济区”和“大大连”四个大都市区。作为城市化发展到一定阶段的产物,东北地区的城市群和城市组群也发育得相对完备而密集,已初步形成“三圈”的基本格局,即辽中南城市群以及吉中、哈大齐等2个大型城市组群。

关键词: 城市地理, 基本框架, 中国东北地区

Abstract:

This paper discusses the basic frame of urban geography in Northeast China on the background of rebuilding northeast old industrial base, new-type industrialization and new-type urbanization. It is an overall summarization of the unban geographical system of northern China for the purpose of proving and practising urban geographical theory further. It is also a basic prerequisite for the analysis of the northeast economic development under the new situation of implementing the concrete strategy of "giving a new life to the region" and "the regional innovation" to meet the actual need of the region. Proceeding from the formation and development process of the urban geographical structure of Northeast China, this paper deals with such basic problems as the urban system frame, the key cities, the metropolitan district, the urban compact district and the urban agglomerations of Northeast China. It points out that the formation and development process of the urban geographical frame in Northeast China witnesses three periods, namely, forming period of the ancient cities and towns, forming period of the modern cities, and shaping and developing period of the modern urban system. In terms of the urban system frame, four relavant aspects are identified as: a top to bottom urbanization process that is fast first and slowing down afterwards, the structure of scale and grade of "weak pyramid" type, the "T-shaped" space structure distributed along railway lines, and the urban function structure developing from "single" to "new-type". The "four cities era" taking Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang and Dalian as key cities in Northeast China has come. The three provincial GDPs are highly concentrated on the four cities, taking shape and developing into four metropolitan districts of "Big Harbin", "Big Changchun", "Economic Zone of Shenyang" and "Big Dalian" relying on these four cities. In the process of rebuilding the northeast old industrial base, the four cities will choose different leading directions that rely on the original foundation and new opportunities for development. Harbin will continue to strengthen its position as the key city in the northern part of Northeast China. Changchun should fully take its basic advantage of automobile industry that has broad market and form an automobile industrial base. Shenyang will serve as the centre of Northeast China. Dalian will become an important passageway of Northeast China depending on its advantage while developing outward-oriented industries. As a result of certain degree of urbanization, the urban compact district and urban agglomerations of Northeast China have developed into a relatively complete and intensive frame, and has formed a basic pattern of "three groups" preliminarily, namely, urban agglomeration of "Central-southern Liaoning", "Central Jilin" and "Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar".

Key words: urban geography, basic frame, Northeast China