地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (2): 139-145.doi: 10.11821/xb200602003

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

1980年以来中国农地利用变化的区域差异

刘成武1,2, 李秀彬1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 咸宁学院城乡规划与资源科学系,咸宁 437005
  • 收稿日期:2005-10-08 修回日期:2005-12-21 出版日期:2006-02-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:刘成武 (1966-), 男, 博士, 教授, 中国地理学会会员。主要从事土地利用/土地覆被变化方面的研究。E-mail: liucw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40571003); 欧盟资助项目 (ICA4-CT-2001-10085); 湖北省自然科学基金项目 (2005ABA008); 湖北省教育厅重点项目 (D200528002)

Regional Differences in the Changes of the Agricultural Land Use in China during 1980-2002

LIU Chengwu1,2, LI Xubin1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Department of Town Planning and Resources Sciences, Xianning College, Xianning 437005, China
  • Received:2005-10-08 Revised:2005-12-21 Online:2006-02-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571003; European Committee Item, No.ICA4-CT-2001-10085; Provincial Natural Foundation of Hubei, No.2005ABA008; Foundation of Hubei Provincial Education Department, No.D200528002

摘要:

依托1980~2002年的中国农产品成本收益资料与中国农业统计年鉴等基础数据,从集约度、播种面积与耕地撂荒变化三个方面,对中国1980年以来农地利用变化的区域差异进行了研究。结果表明:① 西部地区农地利用的集约度具有强劲的上升态势,而东、中部地区在1992~1993年时集约度下降显著,在1997年以后,集约度具有明显的持续下降趋势;② 东部地区农地利用的总播种面积显著下降,而西部地区却有相当稳定的扩大趋势;③ 东部、中部与西部地区三种粮食作物的播种面积变化均经历了一个“三缩二扩”的变化过程:“缩小 (1980~1985)—扩大 (1985~1991)—缩小 (1991~1994)—扩大 (1994~1999)—再缩小 (1999~ 2002)”;但在变化幅度与发展态势上,三个区域之间差异明显。东部地区的播种面积有显著的下降态势,而中部与西部地区在1999年以前,其总的态势是播种面积有所扩大,此后播种面积明显下降,但其下降幅度小于东部地区;④ 中部地区耕地撂荒案例最多,涉及地域最广,东部地区次之,西部地区相对较少;东部地区的耕地撂荒现象主要出现在1992~1995年,而中部地区高度集中在1998~2002年,西部地区耕地撂荒的时间分布较为均匀,没有高度集中出现的特点。

关键词: 中国, 农地利用, 集约度, 播种面积, 弃耕撂荒, 区域差异

Abstract:

Based on the cost-income data (1980-2002) of farm produce and the China Agricultural Yearbook, taking these main crops in the progress of the arable land use as a case study, this paper studied the regional differences in the changes of the agricultural land use in China during the period 1980-2002 from three aspects as the degree of intensity, the sown area and the abandonment of the arable land. The results showed that: (1) The degree of intensity of land use in the western region (WR) during 1980-2000 had a strong increasing trend, but in the eastern region (ER) and in the central region (CR) the degree of intensity descended notablely and has had a sustained declining trend since 1997. (2) The total sown area of the crops shrank evidently in the ER, but the total sown area of crops had a stable trend of expansion in the WR. (3) The sown area in the ER, CR and WR went through a similar process, i.e., shrinking(1980-1985)-expanding(1985-1991)-shrinking (1991-1994)-expanding(1994-1999)-shrinking (1999-2002). However, there was a marked difference in the change extent and its tendency of the sown area among them. The sown area had a marked declining tendency in the WR and expanded in the CR and WR especially before 1999. (4) The abandoned cultivated land area was the largest in the CR, moderate in the ER and the smallest in the WR. The abandonment phenomena emerged in 1992-1995 in the ER, in 1998-2002 in the CR, and the time of the abandonment in the WR had no feature of concentration.

Key words: China, agricultural land use, degree of the intensity, sown area, abandonment of the arable land, regional difference