地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (1): 89-98.doi: 10.11821/xb200601009

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国西部冰川度日因子的空间变化特征

张勇1, 刘时银1,2, 丁永建1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈与环境联合重点实验室, 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所, 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2005-10-30 修回日期:2005-11-20 出版日期:2006-01-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:张勇 (1979-), 男, 博士, 主要从事冰川变化与水资源研究. E-mail: zhangy@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重大项目 (90202013); 国家自然科学基金项目 (40371026); 中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目 (KZCX3-SW-345; KZCX3-SW-339)

Spatial Variation of Degree-day Factors on the Observed Glaciers in Western China

ZHANG Yong1, LIU Shiyin1,2, DING Yongjian1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Cryosphere and Environment, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2005-10-30 Revised:2005-11-20 Online:2006-01-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.90202013; No.40371026; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX3-SW-345; No.KZCX3-SW-339

摘要:

在冰川与积雪消融研究中,度日模型应用较为广泛,该模型是基于冰雪消融与气温,尤其是正积温之间的线性关系建立的。度日因子是该模型的重要参数,反映了单位正积温产生的冰雪消融量,其空间变化特征对于不同模型模拟冰雪消融过程的精度有较大影响。 本文根据中国西部不同地区数十条冰川的短期考察和观测资料,分析了西部冰川度日因子的空间变化特征,结果表明:由于青藏高原及其周围地区独特的气候和热量条件,西部冰川度日因子具有明显的区域特征。在同一冰川上,度日因子的空间变化较为明显。从冰川类型来看,与极大陆型及亚大陆型冰川相比,海洋型冰川的度日因子较大。总体看来,西部冰川的度日因子由西北向东南逐渐增大,这与中国西部冰川的气候环境变化趋势是一致的,即在干冷的气候条件下,度日因子较小;而在暖湿的气候条件下度日因子较大。

关键词: 冰川, 消融, 度日因子, 中国西部

Abstract:

Degree-day factor is an important parameter of degree-day model which is a widely used method for ice and snow melt computation. Spatial variations of a degree-day factor have great impacts on the accuracy of snow or ice melt modeling. This paper analyzes the spatial variability characteristics of the degree-day factors obtained from the observed glaciers of different regions in western China. Results clearly show that the regional patterns of the degree-day factors are detectable on the observed glaciers of western China due to the unique climatic environment and heat budget of the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding areas; the factors of maritime glaciers are higher than those of the sub-continental and extremely continental glaciers because of the ablation area covered with a thin debris layer in the maritime glacier; for a single glacier, the degree-day factors are subject to significant small-scale variations. In general, the regional patterns of the degree-day factors are detectable on observed glaciers due to the unique climatic environment and heat budget of the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding areas. Low degree-day factors can be expected for cold-dry areas, whereas, high degree-day factors can be expected for warm-wet areas in western China.

Key words: glacier, melt, degree-day factor, western China