地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (5): 851-862.doi: 10.11821/xb200505016

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京流动人口特征与经济发展关系的区域差异

鲁奇, 吴佩林, 鲁礼新, 王国霞   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2004-12-22 修回日期:2005-07-06 出版日期:2005-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:鲁奇 (1953-), 男, 河北省山海关人, 研究员, 主要从事乡村发展与土地利用研究。E-mail: Luq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国-欧盟科技合作项目 (ICA4-CT-2002-10004); 国家自然科学基金项目(70173022)

The Relation between the Characteristics of the Migrants and the Economic Development in Beijing and the Regional Differentiation of Their Distribution

LU Qi, WU Peilin, LU Lixin, WANG Guoxia   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2004-12-22 Revised:2005-07-06 Online:2005-09-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Cooperation Project of China and European Commission, funded by European Commission, No.ICA4-CT-2002-10004; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.70173022

摘要:

在整理分析官方网站和实地问卷调查数据的基础上,研究了1997年以来北京流动人口来源地、教育水平、年龄结构、就业等特征变化与中心区、近郊区、远郊区3个圈层经济发展的关系以及不同来源地、不同来京时间、不同教育水平、不同年龄、不同职业、不同收入、不同居住状况、不同未来流动意愿的人口在这三个区域的分布差异。研究表明:①流动人口主要来自华北地区的传统格局在发生着变化,来自距离相对较远文化上与北京差异较大地区的人口比重上升 (7.5%),表明距离成本、文化心理成本在流动人口总转移成本中的重要性下降;② 流动人口趋于在近远郊区的集中分布与这一地带日益成为北京的发展重心密切相关;③ 第三产业在创造流动人口的就业中发挥着重要作用;④ 其就业结构趋于与全市产业结构一致并接近北京城区常住居民的就业结构,而与乡村居民的就业结构差异较大是这一群体的重要就业特征;⑤他们在第三产业白领部门就业的比重远低于城区常住居民,但这一状况在逐步转变,已由1997年约为城区常住居民的1/8升到2002年的1/5;⑥ 中心区的流动人口在来源地、来京时间、年龄结构、教育水平、职业构成、收入水平、居住状况、未来愿望等方面与近远郊区的流动人口有明显差异。

关键词: 流动人口, 来源构成, 就业特点, 区域差异, 区域经济发展, 北京

Abstract:

Based on the data of official network bulletin, statistics and the field survey conducted in 2004, this paper analyzed the relation between the changes of the migrants in their original hometowns, education level, age structure, employment and the economic development in Beijing and the regional differentiation of the distribution of the migrants with different hometowns, age, education, income, work, housing situation and such in the three-circled areas of Beijing which include the central area, near suburbs and outer suburbs since 1997. This paper holds: (1) the concentration trend of the migrants in the near suburb belt is closely connected with the rapid development and the tendency to be the new development center of Beijing in the belt. (2) The employment structure of those migrants is highly corresponding to the industrial structure of Beijing. (3) One of the important employment characteristics of the group is that its employment structure is closer to that of the urban population, but rather different from that of rural population in Beijing. (4) Though their employment ratio in the tertiary industry is much closer to that of the local urban population, their employment ratio in the so-called white-collar sectors in the tertiary industry is far more below that of the local urban population, which is about one eighth in 1997 and one fifth in 2002. (5) They are still constrained by the factors as their lower education level, their personal quality, technique level and cultural background, and they are unable to enter at present into the highly developed and high quality required sectors to work, which have high added value and may give them high income. (6) The regional distribution characteristics of the migrants in the city proper are quite different form that of the migrants in the near and outer suburbs in age, duration in Beijing, education, employment, income, housing and desire for future migrating.

Key words: migrant population, employment characteristics, regional economic development, regional differentiation, Beijing