地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (5): 841-850.doi: 10.11821/xb200505015

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

1900年以来长春市土地利用空间扩张机理分析

匡文慧1,2, 张树文1, 张养贞1, 盛艳3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130012;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100039;
    3. 内蒙古师范大学地理科学学院,呼和浩特 010022
  • 收稿日期:2005-03-22 修回日期:2005-07-06 出版日期:2005-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:匡文慧 (1978-), 男, 汉族, 内蒙古人, 博士研究生, 研究方向为GIS与城市土地利用。 E-mail: kuangwh1978@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目 (KZCX2-SW-320-1)

Analysis of Urban Land Utilization Spatial Expansion Mechanism in Changchun City since 1900

KUANG Wenhui1,2, ZHANG Shuwen1, ZHANG Yangzhen1, SHENG Yan3   

  1. 1. The Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China;
    2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China;
    3. The Geographic Science Institute of Inner Mongolian Normal University, Huhhot 010022, China
  • Received:2005-03-22 Revised:2005-07-06 Online:2005-09-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX2-SW-320-1

摘要:

综合集成TM、SPOT遥感影像,地形图、历史地图及其它空间数据提取长春市1900年、1930年、1954年、1976年、1990年、2004年共6期城市土地利用空间扩张信息。利用空间重心转移模型、分形模型与城市土地—人口异速增长模型分析长春市100年来城市土地利用扩张的空间变化特征,进一步研究其扩张机理。研究结果表明:长春市1900年到2004年城市土地面积扩张56.77倍,其中1990~2004年扩张速度最快;1900年以伊通河左岸的宽城子和现在的南关区北部的内城作为城市的雏形。1900~1930年日俄为进行资源掠夺修筑铁路并在周围建立商埠用地将宽城子与内城连为一体。1930~1954年城市主要沿铁路沿线的西南扩张,1954~1976年国家以发展重工业为主向南北方向填充,1976~2004年城市受高新技术开发、旅游业等的影响主要向东南方向扩张。除1976~1990年外城市向外扩张的不规则程度逐渐提高,稳定性降低。1976~1990年以边缘区填充为主,其他时段以边缘区扩张为主。1900~2004年人口增加87.57倍,人均城市用地面积有逐渐减少的趋势,城市土地利用面积与人口二次幂拟合曲线优于乘幂拟合曲线,从百年尺度上历经半殖民地半封建社会与社会主义经济建设两大社会背景的长春城市土地-人口异速增长模型并非规则变化,说明长春100年来城市演变过程中城市建设在历史时期具有不合理的现象。

关键词: 城市土地, 空间扩张, 人口, 100年, 长春市

Abstract:

This paper extracted urban boundary information in six periods of 1900, 1930, 1954, 1976, 1990 and 2004 by integrating TM and SPOT images, relief maps, history maps and other spatial data of the last 100 years. Based on spatial center of gravity transfer model, fractal model and urban land-population different speed rising model, urban land utilization spatial expansion process and its mechanism for 100 years. The research results show that Changchun urban land area was 5.05 km2 in 1900 and expanded 56.77 times of its area from 1900 to 2004. Changchun urban land area expansion is the quickest from 1990 to 2004 with a speed of 7.89 km2 annually. Then the expansion speed was 3.60 km2 every year from 1930 to 1954. The slowest period was from 1900 to 1930 with a speed of 0.41 km2. Changchun urban land utilization fractal character became more and more complicated with edge being filled mostly from 1976 to 1990. During other periods of time urban land utilization mainly expanded along edge area. Changchun urban population increased 87.57 times from 1900 to 2004. Then per capita available urban land area gradually reduced from 1900 to 2004. Based on urban land and population different speed rising model, the relationship between Changchun urban land and population was analyzed. The result indicated that Changchun urban land and population different speed rising models change irregularly because Changchun urban development and construction was affected by Japanese and Russia empire invasions before 1948.

Key words: urban land, spatial expansion, population, 100 years, Changchun