地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (5): 779-790.doi: 10.11821/xb200505009

• 环境演变与土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

天山北坡绿洲不同土地利用对土壤特性的影响

罗格平, 许文强, 陈曦   

  1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2005-05-07 修回日期:2005-07-18 出版日期:2005-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:罗格平 (1968-), 男, 博士, 研究员。主要从事土地利用/土地覆被变化、地理信息系统和遥感应用研究。E-mail: luogp@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40471134); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向性项目(KZCX3-SW-326-03); 西部之光联合东部学者项目(罗格平, 2004)

Effect of Different Land-use Systems on Soil Properties in the Alluvial Plain-oasis in the Arid Land

LUO Geping, XU Wenqiang, CHEN Xi   

  1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
  • Received:2005-05-07 Revised:2005-07-18 Online:2005-09-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40471134; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX3-SW-326-03; the Project of "Western Light" Related to Eastern Scholar (Luo Geping, 2004)

摘要:

以天山北坡三工河流域冲积平原型绿洲作为研究区,选择12种土地利用系统作为土地利用方式的具体体现,通过采集不同土地利用系统上层土壤 (0~20 cm) 和下层土壤 (20~40 cm) 样方,分析不同土地利用系统对主要土壤特性的影响。研究结果表明:(1) 土地利用系统对砂、粉砂和粘土粒度分布的影响显著。绿洲土壤砂含量随着土地种植年限增加有降低的趋势,而粉砂和粘土含量有增加的趋势;(2) 绿洲土地利用系统对土壤pH值和养分变异的影响显著。人类强干扰的土地利用系统的土壤养分普遍高于人类影响较弱的土地利用系统,上层土壤养分普遍高于下层土壤,而且随着人类干扰时间的延长土壤养分呈整体增加趋势;(3) 人类活动强干扰的土地利用系统土壤盐分含量低于人类活动影响较弱的土地利用系统;人类活动作用时间长的土地利用系统土壤盐分含量总体低于人类活动作用时间短的土地利用系统;(4) 绿洲土壤总体表现为"碳汇"的趋势,土壤质量逐步得到提高,其最主要的原因在于合理的土地利用与科学的管理方式结合;绿洲土壤的"碳汇"积极响应了减轻温室气体排放的东京协定 。

关键词: 绿洲, 土地利用, 土壤粒度, 土壤有机质,土壤养分, 三工河

Abstract:

Taking the alluvial plain oasis as a study case, we have investigated and evaluated the oasis soil properties related to different land-use systems during the process of the transformation of arid desert to oasis. The land-use systems selected consist of an annual crop field with a tillage history of less than 3 years, annual crop field of 3-6 years, annual crop field of more than 6 years, perennial crop field of less than 4 years, perennial crop field of 4-6 years, perennial crop field of more than 6 years, abandoned farmland of more than 3 years, woodland of more than 6 years, ecological forested land, natural shrubbery land, desert steppe and saline or alkaline field. We deliberately collected 5 soil samples in the different areas for each land-use system at the topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm). The soil samples were sent to soil laboratory. We have employed SPSS statistical software to analyze the soil property data. The results show that: (1) The soils are mainly composed of sand and silt. Different land use systems significantly affect the sand, silt and clay distributions. Sand tends to decrease with increasing years of land cultivation and silt and clay trend to increase in the oasis soil. (2) Soil pH and nutrients significantly differ with the land-use systems. Soils of strong human-disturbed land-use systems presented a higher fertility level than those of other weak human-disturbed land-use systems. Oasis soil nutrients tend to increase with the increasing years of human disturbance. (3) The effect of land-use systems on soil salinity is significant. The soils of strong human-disturbed land-use systems have a lower salinity than those of weak human-disturbed land-use systems as a whole. The soil salinity usually tends to decrease with the decreasing years of reasonable human disturbance.

Key words: oasis, land-use, grain size, soil organic matter, soil nutrients, Sangong river