地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (5): 742-750.doi: 10.11821/xb200505005

• 环境演变与土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

安徽淮河流域全新世环境演变对新石器遗址分布的影响

黄润1,2, 朱诚1, 郑朝贵1   

  1. 1. 南京大学城市与资源学系,南京 210093;
    2. 皖西学院城市建设与环境系,六安 237012
  • 收稿日期:2005-05-27 修回日期:2005-06-23 出版日期:2005-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:黄润 (1963-), 男, 副教授, 博士生, 中国地理学会会员, 研究方向为环境考古。E-mail: huangrun@wxc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40271103); 安徽省教育厅自然科学研究项目(2005KJ202、021)

Distribution of Neolithic Sites and Environmental Change in Huaihe River Basin, Anhui Province

HUANG Run1,2, ZHU Cheng1, ZHENG Chaogui1   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Resources Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Department of Urban Construction and Environmental Science, Wanxi College, Luan 237012, China
  • Received:2005-05-27 Revised:2005-06-23 Online:2005-09-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40271103; Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Provincial Education Department, No.2005KJ202/021

摘要:

安徽淮河流域是我国自然条件多重过渡地带和古代文化交汇地区,新石器时代演绎了多期古文化,石山子文化时期以渔猎为主,大汶口文化时期渔猎与农耕并重,而龙山文化时期以农耕为主,渔猎为辅。利用野外考古资料和已有考古研究成果,系统地梳理本区新石器文化发展进程,利用钻孔孢粉、年代数据等恢复本区全新世自然环境演变过程,并将考古资料和环境演变研究有机地结合起来,探讨该地区全新世环境演变和古文化发展的关系。研究表明,随着全新世大暖期的开始,新石器早期出现石山子文化,地方特征明显。6.5 kaBP~ 5.5 kaBP气候暖湿,受高海面和洪涝灾害等的影响,地表环境恶劣,导致文化发展中断、考古遗址缺失,5.5 kaBP~4.0 kaBP气候趋干,自然条件有利于人类生存,大汶口、龙山文化逐渐繁荣。与中原、山东地区相比,本区在新石器文化发展阶段、遗址数量和分布变化等方面存在较明显差异。

关键词: 安徽淮河流域, 全新世, 环境演变, 新石器遗址, 时空分布

Abstract:

Huaihe River basin in Anhui is not only a transitional zone of physical geography, but also an interaction area of many cultures in China. Fishing and hunting played the dominant roles in Shishanzi cultural period; fishing and hunting as well as farming were equal important in Dawenkou cultural period; and priority was given to farming over fishing and hunting in Longshan cultural period. Using the field archaeological data and the sporo-pollen and age data of the drilling cores, we analysed Neolithic cultural development and environmental evolution in Huaihe River basin, Anhui, and discussed the relationship between culture and environment in the area by combining archaeological research results with researches of environmental evolution. The Neolithic cultural development was strongly impacted by the environmental change. The primitive culture (Shishanzi) was developed in the beginning of Holocene Megathermal Period when regional feature of culture was distinct. From 6.5 kaBP to 5.5 kaBP, the climate became warmer and wetter. Flood and waterlog frequently occurred. As a consequence of the impact of such a climate and high sea level, the environment of the earth's surface deteriorated in Huaihe River basin, Anhui, causing the interruption of the Neolithic cultural development and the lack of archaeological sites. From 5.5 kaBP to 4.0 kaBP, the climate changed from wet to dry, the natural environment was favorable to human survival. Dawenkou Culture and Longshan Culture flourished in this period. The Neolithic cultural development, the amount of the sites and their distribution characteristics in Huaihe River basin of Anhui differed apparently from those in central China and Shandong Province.

Key words: Huaihe River basin in Anhui, Holocene, environmental change, Neolithic site, temporal-spatial distribution