地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (5): 733-741.doi: 10.11821/xb200505004

• 环境演变与土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

中全新世气候突变对青海东北部史前文化的影响

刘峰贵1,2, 侯光良1, 张镱锂2, 张忠孝1, 许长军3, 周强1, 张海峰1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学生命与地理科学学院,西宁 810008;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    3. 青海省测绘局基础地理信息中心,西宁 810001
  • 收稿日期:2005-05-10 修回日期:2005-07-18 出版日期:2005-09-25 发布日期:2005-09-25
  • 作者简介:刘峰贵 (1966-), 男, 青海门源人, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员, 主要从事青藏高原自然地理与环境生态研究。E-mail:liufenggui@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40261003; 90202012); 国家重点基础研究发展计划(2005CB422006); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX3-SW-339); 中国科学院"西部之光"访问学者项目

The Impact of Abrupt Climate Change in Mid-Holocene on the Prehistoric Culture in Northeast Qinghai

LIU Fenggui1,2, HOU Guangliang1, ZHANG Yili2, ZHANG Zhongxiao1, XU Changjun3, ZHOU Qiang1, ZHANG Haifeng1   

  1. 1. School of Life and Geographical Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Qinghai Fundamental Geographic Information System, Xining 810001, China
  • Received:2005-05-10 Revised:2005-07-18 Online:2005-09-25 Published:2005-09-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40261003; No.90202012; National Basic Research Program of China, No.2005CB422006; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX3-SW-339; Window-west Visiting Scholar Project of CAS

摘要:

青海东北部自然环境对全球变化响应敏感,且本区史前文化发达、序列完整、遗迹丰富。因此本区是我国研究气候变化对史前文化影响的典型区域。利用气候和考古研究结果,采用GIS和数学分析方法,发现:4 kaBP本区气候向干冷化突变,齐家文化在3.9 kaBP突然衰弱,在干冷形势基本稳定的3.6 kaBP,出现辛店文化和卡约文化,遗址数猛增;齐家文化是农耕文化,辛店文化继承了齐家文化的生产活动,其地域范围缩小,向低海拔和向东部的低山丘陵、河谷、沟谷地带退缩;而卡约文化在适应气候突变后,改变了原有的生产方式,产生了一种新的经济方式——畜牧业,并向西和更高海拔的中山地、高山地等扩展,地域范围达到史前文化最大。因此气候突变,史前居民采取了不同的应对策略,进而形成不同的文化,气候突变是本区史前文化由单一向多元分异的重要驱动力,也是本区大型聚落难以维系,文明进程受挫的重要原因。

关键词: 气候突变, 青海东北部, 史前文化, 地域分布

Abstract:

The natural environment of the northeastern part of Qinghai province has close relation to global climate changes. In this region there are highly developed prehistoric culture, complete sequences and plentiful vestiges. So it is the typical area where the research of the impact of climatic change on the prehistoric culture of China can be conducted. By researching the regional climate and archeology with the methods of GIS and mathematics analysis, we can find that the climate tended to be dryer and colder at 4 kaBP, so, the Qijia culture dramatically became declined at 3.9 kaBP; the climate kept a dry and cold situation at 3.6 kaBP, which promoted the appearance of the Xindian and Kayue cultures and the increase of a lot of relics; the Qijia culture belongs to a farming culture, the Xindian culture inherited the productive activity from the Qijia culture with its regional scope changing smaller to low sea-level, low mountain and river valley areas; but the Kayue culture changed its own productive pattern and produced a new economic way-animal husbandry after the abrupt climate changes, and its regional scope became the largest in prehistoric culture age. Pre-historic residents took different measures due to the abrupt climate changes, then different cultures developed. Climate change is a major driving force that made prehistoric cultures diversified. It is also one of the most important reasons why large selttlements cannot be maintained for a long time and civilization process suffered setbacks.

Key words: climate changes, northeastern Qinghai, prehistoric culture, regional distribution