地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (3): 519-525.doi: 10.11821/xb200503019

• 泥沙研究 • 上一篇    

陕北黄土丘陵区乡村聚落土壤水蚀观测分析

甘枝茂, 岳大鹏, 甘锐, 查小春   

  1. 陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院, 西安 710062
  • 收稿日期:2004-02-26 修回日期:2005-02-01 出版日期:2005-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:甘枝茂 (1938-), 男, 陕西华县人, 教授, 博士生导师, 长期从事地貌与土壤侵蚀、资源与环境的教学、科研工作。E-mail:ganzmyx@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金委员会、水利部黄河水利委员会黄河联合研究基金项目 (50279019)

Field Survey on Water Erosion of the Rural Settlements in the Loess Hilly-gully Area of Northern Shaanxi Province

GAN Zhimao, YUE Dapeng, GAN Rui, ZHA Xiaochun   

  1. College of Tourism and Environment Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China
  • Received:2004-02-26 Revised:2005-02-01 Online:2005-05-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Combined research fund item between the National Natural Science Foundation of China & the Yellow River Water Conservancy Committee of China's Water Conservancy Ministry, No.50279019

摘要:

通过2004年6月至10月, 在陕北对降雨形成的乡村聚落土壤侵蚀的定位观测, 其结果表明:①乡村聚落的平均径流系数为0.335, 其中延安最大, 为0.44;榆林和绥德较小, 分别为0.293、0.272。同时, 道路和庭院的径流系数较大, 分别为0.39、0.377, 户间空地较小, 为0.277;②径流平均含沙量以户间空地最大 (52.54 g/l), 次为户间道路 (41.42 g/l), 而院落径流含沙量较小 (17.78 g/l);③乡村聚落的平均侵蚀强度为5434.3 t/km2, 已达强度级侵蚀, 其中户间道路、户间空地侵蚀较大, 分别为7348 t/km2、6873 t/km2, 庭院相对较小, 为2081.7 t/km2;④乡村聚落土壤侵蚀的变化, 受人为影响更加突出。说明黄土高原乡村聚落土壤侵蚀较严重, 并且具有特殊性, 不可忽视, 应加强研究和防治。

关键词: 陕北, 黄土丘陵区, 乡村聚落, 土壤水蚀, 观测与分析

Abstract:

After observing the soil erosion of rural settlements formed by rainfalls (water erosion) based on field survey in northern Shaanxi province, this paper draws the following conclusions. (1) The average runoff coefficient of rural settlements is 0.335. The maximum runoff coefficient is 0.44, which exists in Yan'an county. The runoff coefficient in Yulin city and Suide county is 0.293 and 0.272 respectively, relatively small. Among the land-use types of rural settlements, the runoff coefficient of road land and yard is greater (separately 0.39 and 0.377), and the runoff coefficient of open space between houses is smaller (0.277). (2) The average runoff-contained sediment amount of open space between houses is the greatest (52.54 g/L), that of settlement yards is the smallest (17.19 g/L), and that of road land is placed in the middle (41.42 g/L). (3) The average erosion intensity of the rural settlements in northern Shaanxi Provence is 5434 t/km2·a, falling into the category of severity erosion. The erosion intensity of road land and open space between houses is respectively 7348 and 6873 t/km2·a, greater than that of the settlement yard (2081.7 t/km2·a). (4) The change of soil erosion of rural settlements is affected more prominently by human activities. It concludes that soil erosion of rural settlements on the Loess Plateau is quite severe and has its particularity. Therefore it can not be ignored and must be paid attention to its research and prevention.

Key words: Shaanxi Province, loess hilly-gully area, rural settlements, water erosion of soil