地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (3): 418-424.doi: 10.11821/xb200503008

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

大都市空间扩展的周期性特征——以美国华盛顿—巴尔的摩地区为例

宗跃光   

  1. 南京大学城市与资源学系, 南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2004-06-01 修回日期:2004-12-18 出版日期:2005-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:宗跃光 (1952-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事城市地理、城市景观生态规划及房地产估价与市场分析。E-mail: zongyg@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目 (40435013); 国家自然科学基金项目 (40171029; 40471058); 南京大学科研基金资助

Periodicity Scenarios in Metropolitan Region: A Case of the Baltimore-Washington Region in the USA

ZONG Yueguang   

  1. Department of Urban and Resources Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2004-06-01 Revised:2004-12-18 Online:2005-05-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40435013; No.40171029; No.40471058; Research Fund from Nanjing University

摘要:

针对大都市区城市化快速发展中, 景观替代具有区域相关性和时序变化的基本特点, 以美国华盛顿—巴尔的摩地区200年都市化发展史为例, 以逻辑斯蒂增长模型为基础, 引进2种景观类型的空间增长模型。研究表明, 华盛顿—巴尔的摩都市区的增长具有明显的30~40年周期性, 分为3个大周期和6个半周期。在有限空间容量下, 本区采用大面积发展城市森林的手段, 缓解城市空间扩展与环境恶化的矛盾。运用竞争系数0.1和0.2条件下的增长模型对这一过程进行模拟。

关键词: 大都市区, 城市化, 逻辑斯蒂增长模型, 美国

Abstract:

Urbanization is now recognized as a ubiquitous phenomenon of global importance. Traditional studies of urban and regional spatial sprawls usually pay much more attention to the sprawl processes of urban land use and seldom take account of natural landscape fragments and deforestation in general. This study tries to synthesize these two spatial processes by employing logistic competitive model in a case study. The sprawl process in the metropolitan area of the Baltimore-Washington is a typical organic growing process among corridors. By the 1790s, the major growths of urban area were around several growth poles. By the 1890s, the urban growths had begun along several corridors between Washington and Baltimore. By the 1990s, the urban growth was along both the growth poles and corridors so called network growth. It totally connected major corridors between Washington and Baltimore in 1992. This process can be described as "point-line-net-surface growth". What is interesting about this analysis is that the metropolitan growth seems to have a 30-40 year cycle by using logistic modeling simulation and circling the spatial area in particular. The period cycles included the low-speed developing cycle between 1792 and 1852, from the high-speed to low-speed developing cycle between 1852 and 1932, and the high-speed with turbulences developing cycle between 1932 and 1992. However, the expansion of urban growth has suffered from increased environmental pressure because of limited environmental capacities. They expand over agriculture, wetlands, wildlands, and forests, thereby changing the physical shape of the landscape as well as the functioning state of the landscape ecosystem. To solve these problems, "Smart Growth" initiatives have been promoted since the 1990s by increasing urban forest areas and constructing rural ecosystems in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan region. We use the logistic model by adding competitive indices to simulate this process. Therefore, from the historical experiences of the metropolitan growth, the "Smart Growth" of metropolises must be favorable for the sustainable development of China metropolitan planning.

Key words: metropolitan area, urbanization, competitive model, USA