地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (3): 392-400.doi: 10.11821/xb200503005

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国特大城市空间形态变化的时空特征

王新生1,2,3, 刘纪远2, 庄大方2, 王黎明2   

  1. 1. 湖北大学资源环境学院, 武汉 430062;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    3. 武汉大学资源与环境科学学院, 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2004-11-15 修回日期:2005-02-21 出版日期:2005-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:王新生 (1965-), 男, 安徽太湖人, 博士, 教授, 中国地理学会会员, 主要从事地理信息系统应用、城市与区域规划和LUCC研究。E-mail: wxs818@163.net, wangxsh@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (90202002)

Spatial-temporal Changes of Urban Spatial Morphology in China

WANG Xinsheng1,2,3, LIU Jiyuan2, ZHUANG Dafang2, WANG Liming2   

  1. 1. School of Resources and Environmental Science, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2004-11-15 Revised:2005-02-21 Online:2005-05-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.90202002

摘要:

基于国家资源环境数据库动态土地利用数据, 借助GIS软件支持, 分别计算了1990年和2000年中国31个特大城市平面轮廓形状的分维、紧凑度和形状指数以及城市的用地扩展类型。结果表明, 从1990年到2000年, 中国31个特大城市空间形态的总体变化趋势是, 城市用地空间扩展类型以填充类型为主, 外延类型相对较少且主要发生在发展限制较小的平原地区。总体上, 分维呈减少趋势且南方城市大于北方城市, 形状指数有减少, 城市空间形状有紧凑化趋势。综观1990年和2000年中国31个城市的分维、紧凑度和形状指数的数据, 可以看出广州、南昌、济南、成都、北京和上海等城市形状变化比较大, 而兰州、太原和唐山等城市形状变化很小。若用地扩展为填充类型, 则分维减少, 紧凑性增加, 形状指数减少;相反, 若用地扩展为外延类型, 分维增加, 紧凑性降低, 形状指数增加。

关键词: 城市空间形态, 分维, 紧凑度, 形状指数, 城市用地扩展类型, 中国

Abstract:

Fractal dimensions, compact ratios, shape indices and types of urban land expansion of 31 Chinese cities in 1990 and 2000 were computed by using dynamic land-use data from the National Resources and Environmental Database established by the IGSNRR, CAS. The results show, during the period from 1990 to 2000, that the type of urban land expansion belongs mostly to the 'extension' types and the cities with the 'filling' land expansion are almost located in the flat regions. Generally, fractal dimensions of 31 Chinese cities were inclined to reduce and fractal dimensions of the southern cities are more than those of the northern cities, compact ratios of most of the cities increased, urban shape indices of most of the cities decreased, during the period from 1990 to 2000. In all the 31 cities, the changes in the planar configurations of Guangzhou, Nanchang, Jinan, Chengdu, Beijing and Shanghai are the greatest, while the changes of Lanzhou, Taiyuan and Tangshan's configurations are the least. Such a simple rule is revealed that the fractal dimensions would reduce, compact ratio would increase and shape index would decrease if the type of urban land expansion belongs to the 'filling' type and vice versa.

Key words: urban spatial morphology, fractal dimension, compact ratio, shape index, type of urban land expansion, China