地理学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (1): 41-52.doi: 10.11821/xb200501005

• 地貌与沉积环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国丹霞地貌空间格局

齐德利1, 于蓉1, 张忍顺1, 葛云健1, 李加林1,2   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210097;
    2. 宁波大学人居环境研究所,宁波 315211
  • 收稿日期:2004-03-25 修回日期:2004-07-30 出版日期:2005-01-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:齐德利 (1973-),男,博士生,主要从事丹霞地貌、旅游开发与规划研究。E-mail: qideli@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(48970006)

On the Spatial Pattern of Danxia Landform in China

QI Deli1, YU Rong1, ZHANG Renshun1, GE Yunjian1, LI Jialin1,2   

  1. 1. College of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China;
    2. Institute of Human Inhabiting Environment, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
  • Received:2004-03-25 Revised:2004-07-30 Online:2005-01-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.48970006

摘要:

通过分析中国丹霞地貌的空间分布格局,把我国丹霞地貌划分东南、西南和西北三大集中分布区。主要研究了三大丹霞地貌集中分布区的景观异质性。东南区 (包括浙、闽、赣、粤、湘、桂等省区) 多发育临溪丹霞峰林、丹霞赤壁、一线天、天生桥等景观;西南区 (云贵高原与四川盆地过渡带) 以赤壁与急流瀑布相伴为主要景观特色;西北区 (包括陇山周围、河湟谷地) 则呈现出特有的干旱区丹霞地貌景观,区内由于自然条件的复杂性,如小气候及流水作用,黄土盖层成分及其存在与否的差异性,区内景观异质性显著。从三区的构造运动上升速度、降水强度、植被等生物作用、河川过程以及黄土作用等地质地理、气候条件、生物、理化等内外动力作用,分析了形成这种景观差异性的原因、形成机理和过程。

关键词: 丹霞地貌, 空间格局, 景观, 异质性, 中国

Abstract:

Danxia landform as a special geomorphic type is distributed in most parts of China. According to its spatial distribution patterns and regional differences, three major Danxia landform concentrated areas in China are identified in this paper. They are southeast area (including Jiangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang, Hunan and Guangxi provinces), the southwest area (the transitional zone of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Sichuan Basin) and the northwest area (including Longshan mountain and both sides of the Huanghe River and its anabranches). The geologic and geographic conditions of Danxia landform and their differences of the three areas are analyzed. The Danxia geomorphologic landscapes, such as upright-shaped peaks, Danxia mesa, stone wall, cave and vertical cave, Danxia natural bridge, "a narrow strip of sky" and so on, are generally formed in the southeast area. The landscape of southwest area is characterized by Danxia escarpment face, waterfall and waterfall groups. The special landscapes in arid areas are found in the northwest area, for example, the mud-coating type, columniation type and board type of Danxia landforms, however there are more differences here than in the other two areas because of the complexity of the nature including the climate, running water, wind abrasion, the loessial cover and relevant elements and so on. Based on the tectonic uplift rates, regional structure of sedimentary red-basin, the fluvial process, weathering and biological processes, gravity and other internal gravitation and external processes in each Danxia landform area in China, this paper discusses the causes which control the differences and also explains the landscapes formation process and its mechanism.

Key words: Danxia landform, spatial pattern, landscape, difference, China