地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (5): 772-780.doi: 10.11821/xb200405016

• 区域发展分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

洞庭湖区湿地恢复的生态补偿效应评估

熊鹰1,2, 王克林1, 蓝万炼2, 齐恒3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所, 长沙 410125;
    2. 长沙理工大学建筑系, 长沙 410076;
    3. 湖南文理学院经济与资源环境系, 常德 415000
  • 收稿日期:2004-03-25 修回日期:2004-05-28 出版日期:2004-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:熊鹰 (1977-), 男, 湖南汉寿人, 硕士。主要从事资源环境与区域发展研究。E-mail: xiong2001ying@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目 (KZCX2-SW-415)

Evaluation of the Lake Recovery Area Eco-Compensation in Dongting Lake Wetland

XIONG Ying1,2, WANG Ke-lin1, LAN Wang-lian2, QI Heng3   

  1. 1. Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, CAS, Changsha 410125, China;
    2. Department of Architecture, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076, China;
    3. Department of Economy, Resource and Environment, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changsde 415000, China
  • Received:2004-03-25 Revised:2004-05-28 Online:2004-09-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX2-SW-415

摘要:

洞庭湖是我国最大的淡水湖泊湿地景观生态系统之一,湿地资源丰富。但由于人类不同历史时期的围垦和不合理的开发利用,导致湖泊湿地生态系统严重退化,湿地面积大为减少。随着洞庭湖区按照国家“退田还湖,移民建镇”的整体战略部署,以及“4350”工程的实施,湖泊面积、湿地资源将会得以恢复。然而,退田还湖中移民农户为保护与恢复湿地,牺牲了部分利益,成为受损方。洞庭湖区湖泊湿地的退田还湖工程是恢复长江生态功能系统工程中一个很重要的子系统,工程能否顺利实施的关键在于退田还湖农民在其中损失的利益能否得到补偿,及其为生态恢复所作的贡献能否得到承认。作者在实地调查和试验的基础上,依据环境经济学原理和方法,对洞庭湖湿地恢复引起的湖区农户收益减少和一系列的湿地生态服务功能的恢复表现,进行了价值评估,由此得出湿地恢复应对湖区移民农户的生态补偿值。以湿地恢复的生态补偿评估为基础,探讨了评估方法与建立补偿机制重要性,以期实现“以人为本”的战略目标,也为顺利进行退田还湖的后期工作,广泛调动广大群众生态建设的积极性,为合理建立生态补偿机制提供参考。

关键词: 湿地恢复, 生态补偿, 生态服务功能价值, 影响, 评价, 洞庭湖区

Abstract:

Eco-compensation is an environmental economics instrument for internalization of external cost. Lake recovery is one of the important parts of restoring ecological function of the Yangtze River. Whether the project could be successful depends on the compensation to the farmers, who have lost their original benefits and contributed to the ecosystem recovery. The availability of reasonable approaches to settle down the relocated population is a significant premises for the implement of the programs to restore the ecological environment in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. It refers not only to the provision of basic living space for the relocated population, but also to the creation of opportunities of employment and development for the population. Dongting lake area is an important national commercial agricultural base with high population density. The practical implementation of programs of lake recovery and flood control in this area has been challenged by the heavy task of population relocation, so it is an ideal area to do a case study to reach the academic objectives proposed above. The wetland in Dongting Lake region is the largest lacustrine wetland in China, covering an area of 8.07×105 hm2. This article takes Dongting Lake area as a case to study and explore the basic issues of the eco-compensation, that is who should pay, who should be paid, how much is the payment and payment vehicle. Based on the analysis, the cost of eco-compensation in Dongting Lake area is 6084.6 yuan. In order to realize the eco-compensation, we must improve the compensation of social environment, local policies, compensational measures, and mental situation, so it can provide advantageous conditions to eco-compensation.

Key words: wetland recovery, eco-compensation, service value of ecosystem, effect, evaluation, Dongting Lake area