地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (5): 662-670.doi: 10.11821/xb200405003

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

近2000年来甘肃民勤盆地绿洲的空间变化

颉耀文1, 陈发虎1,2, 王乃昂1   

  1. 1. 兰州大学资源环境学院西部环境教育部重点实验室, 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所沙漠与沙漠化重点实验室, 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2004-03-29 修回日期:2004-06-29 出版日期:2004-09-25 发布日期:2004-09-25
  • 作者简介:颉耀文 (1969-), 男, 汉族, 博士, 副教授, 主要从事环境遥感研究。E-mail:xieyw@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划 (973) 项目 (G2000048701); 科技部重点国际合作项目 (2002CB714004) 资助项目

Spatial Change of Minqin Oasis in Gansu over the Last 2000 Years

XIE Yaowen1, CHEN Fahu1,2, WANG Naiang1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental System of Ministry of Education, College of Earth & Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 73000, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2004-03-29 Revised:2004-06-29 Online:2004-09-25 Published:2004-09-25
  • Supported by:

    The National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), No.G2000048701; International Collaboration Project, 2002CB714004

摘要:

在2000多年前的秦汉之际,民勤盆地是北方匈奴的游牧之地。自从西汉王朝驱逐匈奴以后,农耕文化传入本区,使本区由一个纯粹牧业区迅速演变为农业区。伴随着人类开发进程的加快和开发规模的扩大,加之自然环境的变化,民勤盆地从一个“土沃泽饶”、“可耕可渔”的湿生环境演变为“十地九沙,非灌不殖”的干旱荒漠环境。目前,民勤盆地成为干旱区生态环境恶化的典型,其发展的可持续性受到严峻挑战。作者在大量野外实地考察的基础上,综合运用历史文献、考古、遥感和地图资料,通过广泛搜集近2000年来民勤盆地绿洲演化的证据,对典型历史时期的绿洲分布范围进行了复原,并制作了相应的绿洲分布图。结果表明,民勤绿洲的开发始于汉代,繁荣于魏晋,萧条于南北朝至宋元,复兴于明清,鼎盛于现代。绿洲的发展在空间上总体表现为一个自西向东的迁移过程。

关键词: 民勤盆地, 历史时期, 绿洲变化

Abstract:

Minqin Basin was once a pastoral area for Hun people in Chinese Qin and Han dynasties 2000 years ago. Since the Hun people were banished and Minqin Basin became part of Han Dynasty, agricultural techniques were introduced. As a result, the quondam pastoral area evolved into an agricultural area gradually. With the acceleration of exploitation, great changes have taken place in the environment. Since then, the fecund land that was once suitable for cultivation and fishery became a scene of "deserts occupying 90% of the area" and "no irrigation, no planting". At present, Minqin Basin has become a typical example of environmental deterioration, and the sustainable development of this area is facing significant challenges. Based on a great many field investigations, the authors made use of integrated data, including historical literature, archaeology, remote sensing imageries and maps, collected extensively evolvement evidence of Minqin Basin about 2000 years ago, reconstructed and mapped the typical oasis distribution of historical times. The result shows that the exploitation of Minqin Oasis, which began in the Han Dynasty, brought prosperity in the Wei and Jin dynasties, declined from the Southern and Northern Dynasty to the Song and Yuan dynasties, rebounded in the Ming and Qing dynasties and reached a climax in modern times. As a whole, the spatial development of Minqin oasis experienced a transfer process from west to east.

Key words: Minqin Basin, historical times, oasis change