地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (3): 462-467.doi: 10.11821/xb200403017

• 沉积环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于对Leopold-Wolman关系修正的河床河型判别

许炯心   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2003-05-07 修回日期:2003-11-09 出版日期:2004-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:许炯心 (1948-), 男, 四川绵阳人。研究员, 博士生导师。长期从事河流地貌研究工作。共发表论文130余篇。E-mail:xujx@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金 (49970014);中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所知识创新工程项目(CXIOG-A00-05-01)

Channel Pattern Discrimination Based on the Relationship Between Channel Slope and Width

XU Jiongxin   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2003-05-07 Revised:2003-11-09 Online:2004-05-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.49970014; Knowledge Innovation Project of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of CAS, No.CXIOG-A00-05-01

摘要:

在广泛收集中国和世界上冲积河流资料的基础上,以近200条河流的大样本对著名的、国际上沿用40余年的 Leopold-Wolman关系,即用于河型判别的比降-流量关系进行了检验。结果发现,该关系不能用于包括砾石与砂质河床在内的河型判别。这是由于比降-流量关系主要反映砾石河床与砂质河床之间差异,其次才反映分汊与弯曲河型之间的差异。为此,对于Leopold-Wolman关系进行了改进,提出了以比降和河宽来判别河型的新关系。这一关系综合反映了河流在纵向上的能耗、阻力与输沙特性与在横向上的流场与环流分布特性的组合关系,因而具有更好的河型判别效果,可以用于包括砾石与砂质河床在内的河型判别。

关键词: 河型;砾石河流;沙质河流;河型判别;比降;河宽

Abstract:

The classic channel slope-discharge relationship proposed by Leopold and Wolman (1957) for channel pattern discrimination has been tested by a large database including 4 types of rivers: gravel-bed meandering, gravel-bed braided, sand-bed meandering and sand-bed braided rivers. The result shows that the Leopold-Wolman relationship cannot discriminate channel patterns well when both gravel- and sand-bed rivers are considered. It is indicated that the Leopold-Wolman relationship reflects the difference between gravel- and sand-bed rivers more than the difference between meandering and braided channel patterns. The channel width-bankfull discharge relationship for discrimination channel patterns of sand-bed rivers in China is also tested in this stud. The result shows that the channel width-discharge relationship discriminates channel patterns better than the slope-discharge relationship. To improve the Leopold-Wolman relationship, a diagram based on the channel slope-bankfull width relationship is proposed. This diagram shows that the slope-width plane is divided by two straight-lines into 4 areas, with each type of river located in each area. Hence, the two straight lines can be regarded as the thresholds between the 4 types of rivers: gravel-bed meandering, gravel-bed braided, sand-bed meandering and the sand-bed braided patternes.

Key words: channel pattern, gravel-bed river, sand-bed river, channel pattern discrimination