地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (3): 391-400.doi: 10.11821/xb200403009

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江平原湿地景观结构的时空变化

刘红玉,张世奎,吕宪国   

  1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130012
  • 收稿日期:2003-10-11 修回日期:2003-11-29 出版日期:2004-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:刘红玉 (1963-), 副研究员。主要从事湿地景观变化与环境效应研究。E-mail: Liuhongyu@mail.neigae.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要项目 (KZCX2-SW-320);东北地理与农业生态研究所 (NEIGAE)学科前沿领域项目 (KZCX3-SW-NA)

Wetland Landscape Structure and the Spatial-temporal Changes in 50 Years in the Sanjiang Plain

LIU Hongyu, ZHANG Shikui, LU Xianguo   

  1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China
  • Received:2003-10-11 Revised:2003-11-29 Online:2004-05-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX2-SW-320; Research Priority Field Project of NEIGAE, No.KZCX3-SW-NA

摘要:

基于湿地是流域中重要的景观和生态系统的思想,结合已有历史资料和遥感资料进行不同时段景观制图和GIS分析,对三江平原挠力河流域湿地景观结构和50年 (1949~2000) 来时空变化进行了系统研究,得出的主要结论为:(1) 流域湿地具有特殊的纵向结构、横向结构的景观梯度特征和内部结构特征,并且景观梯度特征与流域地形梯度、水文梯度以及地貌结构特征相协调;(2) 流域湿地景观结构在人类活动干扰下发生了巨大变化:景观纵向结构从连续的基质景观变化为河岸带景观,横向结构从明显的景观类型梯度特征变化为单一类型景观,而景观内部结构特征则表现为镶嵌斑块体的不断丧失;(3) 大规模土地开发活动和水利工程建设是流域湿地景观结构变化的主要驱动力。

关键词: 流域湿地;景观结构;时空变化

Abstract:

The characteristics of wetland landscape structure in watershed in the Naoli River the Sanjiang Plain are exhibited in three aspects. The first one is wetland landscape gradient characteristic in the longitudinal landscape structure of the watershed from the sources area of rivers to the lower reaches, which shows that wetland landscape types were differently distributed according to the topographic gradient and hydrological gradient and formed a wide riparian landscape corridor in the watershed; the second is wetland landscape gradient characteristic in the transverse structure of watershed with perpendicularity rivers in the watershed, which also shows that wetland landscape types are differently distributed in a topographic gradient and hydrological gradient and formed an extensively distributed wetland area in watershed's flood plain; the third is wetland landscape internal structure, which shows that many small mosaics or patches were distributed in the microscopic geomorphic units in the extensive wetland landscapes. The driving forces leading to substantial changes of wetland landscape structure in the watershed were identified as: 1) land reclamation has led to more than 75% of wetlands loss in historical periods and 98% of the lost wetlands direct conversion to agricultural lands in the watershed, which is the major reason for watershed wetland landscape structure changes; 2) drainage ditches construction for agricultural development and dikes construction for flooding prevention after the 1980s has led to wetland loss and fragmentation and landscape structure changes in the watershed; 3) changes in wetland hydrological condition due to agricultural development have led to wetland ecosystem degradation, as a result, almost all the remaining marsh wetlands in the plain were degraded to meadow wetland at present state.

Key words: landscape structure, spatial-temporal changes, watershed wetland