地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (1): 143-154.doi: 10.11821/xb200401018

• 流域环境模拟 • 上一篇    下一篇

分布式水文模型在黄河流域的应用

杨大文1, 李翀1, 倪广恒2, 胡和平2   

  1. 1. 日本东京大学土木工程系,东京 113-8656;
    2. 清华大学水利水电工程系,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2003-09-04 修回日期:2003-11-21 出版日期:2004-01-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:杨大文(1966- ),四川人,日本东京大学工学博士,副教授。主要研究方向:流域分布式水文模型、陆面过程与大气的相互作用、 遥感技术在水文及水资源中的应用。E-mail: dyang@hydra.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划 (973)项目(G19990436-01);日本科学技术振兴事业团研究项目

Application of a Distributed Hydrological Model to the Yellow River Basin

YANG Dawen1, LI Chong1, NI Guangheng2, HU Heping2   

  1. 1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan;
    2. Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2003-09-04 Revised:2003-11-21 Online:2004-01-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National 973 project of China, No.G19990436-01;Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)

摘要:

流域的水资源规划和管理都离不开水资源的定量化评估。而准确评估流域的水资源量,尤其是在大流域,必须明晰不同气候、地形、土地利用等自然条件下的水文循环过程。同时农业灌溉及水库调节等人工的直接取水和调控使水文过程变得更为复杂。仅依靠气象及水文观测数据,已很难拟合出单一的降雨-径流关系来模拟和预测流域水资源的时空分布。这时就需要一种新型水文模拟手段,它可以利用地理信息来描述流域的空间不均一性,并基于物理控制方程来描述水文过程,这就是分布式水文模型。作者介绍了这种模型及其在黄河流域的应用。

关键词: 水文过程;空间变异性;分布式水文模型;水资源;黄河

Abstract:

For implementing water resources management in the Yellow River Basin, water resources assessment is very necessary and important. The accuracy of water resources assessment relies on predictability of the hydrological cycle. Different land uses, topographical features, geological and soil conditions, and artificial water uses (mainly agricultural irrigation) determine the complexity of hydrological characteristics in this basin. With the limited observation of the river discharge, it is difficult to develop a lumped model for simulating hydrology in different sub-basins based on parameter calibration. The physically-based hydrological model can be helpful in this case. The present research attempts to incorporate all available spatial information into the hydrological modeling by a distributed approach. A physical model is developed using the physical governing equations for description of the hydrological processes. It carries out a 10-year (1980-1989) simulation of the natural hydrological cycle. Based on the hydrological simulation, the paper discusses the spatial-temporal hydrological characteristics and the status of water resources in the Yellow River Basin.

Key words: hydrological process, spatial heterogeneity, distributed hydrological model, water resources assessment, the Yellow River