地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (1): 40-48.doi: 10.11821/xb200401005

• 地表通量监测 • 上一篇    下一篇

高寒植被类型及其植物生产力的监测

李英年1, 王勤学2, 古松2, 伏玉玲3, 杜明远4, 赵亮1, 赵新全1, 于贵瑞3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,西宁 810001;
    2. 日本国立环境研究所,筑波 305-8506;
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    4. 日本农业环境技术研究所,筑波 305-8604
  • 收稿日期:2003-09-16 修回日期:2003-11-20 出版日期:2004-01-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:李英年 (1962-), 男, 青海乐都人, 副研究员, 主要从事生物气象、全球变化研究工作, 发表论文近60篇。E-mail: ynli@mail.nwipb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程项目(KZCX1-SW-01-01A5);国家973 计划项目 (2002CB412501);亚太地区环境创新战略计划(APEIS)项目

Integrated Monitoring of Alpine Vegetation Types and its Primary Production

LI Yingnian1, WANG Qinxue2, GU Song2, FU Yuling3, DU Mingyuan4, ZHAO Liang1, ZHAO Xinquan1, YU Guirui3   

  1. 1. Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS, Xining 810001, China;
    2. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-0053, Japan;
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    4. National Institute for Agro-Environmental Science, Tsukuba 305-8604, Japan
  • Received:2003-09-16 Revised:2003-11-20 Online:2004-01-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No. KZCX1-SW-01-01A5; The National 973 Program, No.2002CB412501; The Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy Project (ASEIS), NIES, Japan

摘要:

监测并分析了高寒草甸二种不同植被类型的生态环境条件、植物种类组成、生物量变化规律及其差异。研究表明:距离相近且海拔高度基本相同的矮蒿草草甸和金露梅灌丛草甸二种群落内部,由于受地形部位影响,虽然降水基本相同,但地表受热及蒸发量不同,土壤湿度存在明显差异。受上述环境条件特别是受土壤温湿度条件的限制,二种群落内的植物种类不同,地下、地上生物量的变化也不同,一般在山地阴坡主要分布着以金露梅灌丛为优势种外,多以线叶蒿草、小蒿草、羊茅、及其它杂草类为伴生种的金露梅灌丛草甸植被类型,而主要分布于滩地的矮蒿草草甸多以垂穗披碱草等植物为伴生种的湿中性植被类型,属典型的高寒草甸植被类型。生物量监测结果的比较分析表明,群落的地上生物量为:矮蒿草草甸 > 金露梅灌丛草甸;地下生物量随植被类型的不同,其峰值与谷值出现时间不一致。年内地下净生产量为:金露梅灌丛草甸 > 矮蒿草草甸。地下生产量周转值为:矮蒿草草甸 > 金露梅灌丛草甸。

关键词: 高寒草甸;植被类型;生物量;地温;土壤湿度;海北

Abstract:

In this paper, species composition, biomass change pattern and differences of 2 types of alpine vegetations in the northeastern part of Qinghai were analyzed. Monitoring results showed that there were significant differences in soil humidity moisture and evaporation between Kobresia humilis meadow and Potentilla fruticosa shrub which grew in the same regions with similar altitudes and precipitation but different topography. The species constitute 2 types of alpine vegetations which are different due to limitations of environmental factors, especially soil temperature and moisture. With respect to the general biogeography of the region, the Potentilla fruticosa shrubs, dominated by Potentilla fruticosa and accompanied with Kobresia capillifolia, Kobresia pygmaes, Festuca ovina and some forbs, are found on the northern slopes. The Kobresia humilis meadows, typical alpine meadow dominated by Kobresia humilis and accompanied with Elymus mutans, are widely distributed along the valley floor. The above-ground biomass of Kobresia humilis meadow is greater than that of Potentilla fruticosa shrub. As for underground biomass (0-40 cm), both types of vegetations maintained relatively great values during the period from May to September, but the occurrence time of its peak value and the lowest value differs from each other for the 2 types of vegetations. The annual net underground production of Potentilla fruticosa shrub is greater than that of Kobresia humilis meadow, whereas, the turnover value of underground production of Kobresia humilis meadow is greater than that of Potentilla fruticosa shrub.

Key words: alpine meadow, vegetation type, biomass, soil temperature, soil moisture, Haibei