地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (1): 3-12.doi: 10.11821/xb200401001

• 研究综述 •    下一篇

亚太地区环境综合监测的研究方法——APEIS项目研究综述

渡边正孝1, 王勤学1, 林诚二1, 村上正吾1, 刘纪远2, 张小雷3, 赵新全4, 王克林5   

  1. 1. 日本国立环境研究所,筑波 305-8506;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    3. 中国科学院新疆地理与生态研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011;
    4. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所;西宁810001;
    5. 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所,长沙 410125
  • 收稿日期:2003-09-09 修回日期:2003-10-30 出版日期:2004-01-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:渡边正孝,1945年生于日本京都。1970年获京都大学工学硕士,1975年获美国麻省理工大学博士学位。曾先后工作和研究于美国麻省理工大学土木工程学系,国际应用系统分析研究所和日本京都大学等。现任日本国立环境研究所水土圈环境研究领域长。1994年以来,他曾20多次组织日本学者访华,与中国科学院、国家海洋局、长江水利委员会、长江水资源保护局、南京水利水电研究院、华东师范大学等单位进行合作研究。他还先后培养了十多名来自中国的博士后,并邀请了20多个各种层次的学术交流团访问日本。在他的积极努力下,以中日两国科学家为中心、亚太许多国家参加的“亚洲太平洋地区环境创新战略(APEIS)项目”于2001年正式启动了。该项目在新疆阜康建设了地球观测卫星接收站和处理中心,同时在森林、沙漠、草原、农田等代表性地点设立了地面生态站。因他在中日两国环境领域合作研究的卓越成就,得到了有关部门的高度重视。他于 2003年获得了新疆维吾尔自治区政府颁发的“中国天山奖”。E-mail: masawata@nies.go.jp
  • 基金资助:

    亚洲太平洋地区环境创新战略项目环境综合监测子课题

A Methodology of Integrated Environmental Monitoring: A Review on Researches of APEIS Project

WATANABE Masataka1, WANG Qinxue1, HAYASHI Seiji1, MURAKAMI Shogo1, LIU Jiyuan2, ZHANG Xiaolei3, ZHAO Xinquan4, WANG Kelin5   

  1. 1. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Xinjiang Institute of Geography and Ecology, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    4. Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS, Xining 810001, China;
    5. Institute of Subtropical Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changsha 410125, China
  • Received:2003-09-09 Revised:2003-10-30 Online:2004-01-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Integrated Environmental Monitoring (IEM) Subproject, the Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy Project (APEIS) http://www.ecoasia.org/APEIS/

摘要:

为了对亚太地区的环境灾害、环境破坏和环境退化及其影响进行监测和评估,由日本环境省发起的亚太地区环境革新战略项目 (APEIS) 环境综合监测子项目 (IEM) 自2001年开始,建立了一个以MODIS卫星数据和地面观测资料为基础的综合环境监视网络系统。该网络系统起初是由日本国立环境研究所 (NIES) 和中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 (IGSNRR)共同合作建成的。之后,新加坡国立大学和澳大利亚联邦科学产业研究组织 (CSIRO) 地球观测中心也正式宣布加入,该系统覆盖整个亚太地区。美国宇航局 (NASA) 提供了一套MODIS的高级数据产品,然而,这些产品没能在亚洲地区利用当地的实测资料进行充分地比较和验证。APEIS项目旨在提供利用该地区精确地面观测数据进行了比较验证的高质量数据集。利用该数据集可以推导出水分亏缺指数、沙尘暴指数、地表面温度、土地覆盖变化, 以及净第一性生产量等一系列生态环境指标,从而对环境破坏、环境退化和生态脆弱区进行长期有效的监测。为了评价水资源、食物生产等生态系所提供的产品与服务的现状和变化特征,本研究还开发了一个可利用MODIS数据的流域环境综合管理模型。该模型已经被用于对流域规模的水、热、碳循环、泥沙转移以及农业生产等生态要素的模拟和评估,并利用高精度的观测资料对其进行了验证。利用该模式可以对流域生态系统所提供的产品与服务的有效利用,以及流域的可持续发展提供一系列战略性的政策选项。

关键词: 亚太地区;环境监测;MODIS;流域环境管理模型;环境灾害;环境退化

Abstract:

Rapid population growth and economic development in the Asia-Pacific Region has resulted in serious local, national and regional environmental problems such as floods, droughts, forest fires, dust storms, air, water and soil pollution, desertification, salinization, water resource depletion, and soil erosion. Such problems are a serious constraint to sustainable development in the region. The Integrated Environmental Monitoring (IEM), a sub-project of Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy (APEIS) project, aims to develop an integrated environmental monitoring system that can be used to detect, monitor and assess environmental disasters, degradation and their impacts in the Asia-Pacific Region. The system employs data primarily from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor on the Earth Observation System (EOS)-Terra/Aqua satellite, as well as those from ground observations. The IEM achievements in the last two years can be concluded as follows: (1) IEM established an integrated monitoring network system under the auspices of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in Japan and the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, and expanded it with additional participation by the National University of Singapore and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Australia. The network has already covered most of the Asia-Pacific Region. (2) IEM also established two data-analyzing centers at NIES in Japan and IGSNRR in China. These centers store a wide variety of satellite data produced not only by different sensors, but also by various ground-based measurements. A data-processing system for deriving the higher order environmental indices from MODIS data was also completed. The products can be used to detect and monitor environmental disasters/degradations and indices for vulnerabilities. They can also be used as inputs to a range of models for assessing climate change, ecological conditions and agricultural production. (3) Although numerous satellite-derived indices in the Asia-Pacific Region have already been produced by other projects/organizations, most have yet to be calibrated or validated by ground-truth data so that they might contain significant uncertainties. Thus, IEM established five validation sites in a variety of ecosystems in China, as follows: grassland, dry field, paddy field, forest, and semi-arid area. The data gathered at these sites include information related to radiation, meteorology, and soil and vegetation. The data can be remotely downloaded through a satellite network. Using these consistent and quality assured datasets, IEM can produce accurate and reliable information specific to the region. (4) A MODIS data based integrated watershed management model is developed to assess conditions and changes in ecological goods and services such as fresh water resources and food production. With this model and the above information, strategic policy options for sustainable watershed management will be explored.

Key words: Asia-Pacific, Integrated Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Innovation Strategy, watershed