地理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (6): 803-809.doi: 10.11821/xb200306001

• 生态系统与地表过程 •    下一篇

森林生态系统健康评价指标及其在中国的应用

肖风劲1, 欧阳华2, 傅伯杰3, 牛海山2   

  1. 1. 国家气候中心,北京 100081;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    3. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2003-07-03 修回日期:2003-08-22 出版日期:2003-11-25 发布日期:2003-11-25
  • 作者简介:肖风劲 (1973-), 男, 湖南湘乡人, 博士。主要从事生态系统健康、生态环境评价、气候影响评价等方面的研究。E-mail: xiaofengjin@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新方向性项目(KZCX2-405)

Forest Ecosystem Health Assessment Indicators and Application in China

XIAO Fengjin1, OUYANG Hua2, FU Bojie3, NIU Haishan2   

  1. 1. National Climate Center, Beijing 100081, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2003-07-03 Revised:2003-08-22 Online:2003-11-25 Published:2003-11-25
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX2-405

摘要:

根据1995~1998年的遥感资料、1980~1997年全国气象资料以及1949~2001年的森林统计资料以及全国300多个森林样地调查资料,在生态系统健康理论基础上,以活力 (V)、组织结构 (O) 和恢复力 (R) 为评价指标,对中国森林生态系统的健康状况进行了评价,并对中国森林生态系统健康的空间格局进行了分析。我国森林生态系统健康指数高的区域主要分布在热带雨林季雨林以及天然林分布的区域,而蒙新林区和暖温带林区的健康指数较低,且由南到北逐渐降低。温度和降水对森林生态系统健康的空间格局有较大的影响。通过生态系统健康指数与活力、组织结构和抵抗力的相关分析可知,抵抗力对生态系统健康影响最大,其次是组织结构,影响力最小的是活力。

关键词: 森林生态系统健康, 评价, 指标, 空间格局, 中国

Abstract:

In recent decades, the idea of "health" as an appropriate paradigm to assess the condition of ecosystems has been raised. Ecosystem health is the watchword of contemporary ecosystem management, it is also a controversial topic in ecology because there is still no explicit definition, which makes it difficult to assess ecosystem health. As there are too many uncertain factors accompanied with complexity, the qualitative and semi-qualitative methods have become the main approaches to assess ecosystem health. In this study, based on GIS and remote sensing technique we take China's forest ecosystems as a case study and assess the health status of forests. Vigor (V), Organization (O), and Resilience (R) are taken as the indicators to evaluate large-scale forest ecosystem health. As this model is applied to assess forest ecosystems, NPP, Gleason index of biodiversity, and resistance to forest pest-disease disaster are selected as concrete indicators to assess forest ecosystem health in China. The spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health shows a decreasing trend along latitude gradient and longitude gradient. According to the zonation of forest in China, the healthy forests are mainly distributed in natural forest, tropical rain forest and seasonal rain forest distributed areas, as well as northeast national forest zone. Whereas the unhealthy forests are mainly distributed in warm temperate zone and Xinjiang-Mongolia forest zone. Many catastrophic events such as forest fire, acid deposition, pest-disease disasters affect forest health. The health status relates to landform, climate condition, forest species structure, exotic forest pest invasion, human activities disturbance, national law and policy and so on. We measure the correlation coefficient by spatial correlation analysis. The coefficient of correction between FEHI and annual average precipitation is 0.58 (p < 0.01), while the coefficient of correlation between FEHI and annual mean temperature is 0.49 (p < 0.01), which means that the precipitation and temperature affect the pattern of FEHI, and the precipitation's effect is stronger than the temperature's. We also measure the correlation coefficient between FEHI and NPP, biodiversity and resistance, the coefficient of correlation is 0.64, 0.76 and 0.81 (p < 0.01) respectively. The order of effect on forest ecosystem health is vigor, organization and resistance.

Key words: forest ecosystem health, assessment, indicator, spatial pattern, China