地理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (3): 381-389.doi: 10.11821/xb200303007

• 经济地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国农业结构调整基本态势与区域效应

刘彦随,陆大道   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2002-11-08 修回日期:2003-02-20 出版日期:2003-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:刘彦随 (1965-), 男, 陕西绥德人, 博士后、责任副研究员, 主要研究方向为土地科学和农业与农村可持续发展。在国内外学术刊物发表专业论文90余篇,出版著作4部。E-mail: liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目 (KZCX1-SW-19-1-03; KZCX-10-09);中国科学院地理资源所知识创新工程骨干项目(CXIOG-E01-05-03)

The Basic Trend and Regional Effect of Agricultural Structure Adjustment in China

LIU Yansui, LU Dadao   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2002-11-08 Revised:2003-02-20 Online:2003-05-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Key Project of CAS, No.KZCX1-SW-19-1-03; KZCX-10-09; Knowledge Innovation Project of IGSNRR, CAS, No.CXIOG-E01-05-03

摘要:

根据1997~2001年中国统计年鉴和典型调研资料,在分析新时期农业结构调整基本内涵和构建评价指标体系的基础上,分别对各省区农业结构调整比较优势及其调整区域效应进行了评价和关联分析。结果表明:全国80%的省区能够立足当地比较优势,农业结构调整有序展开,农业生产的优势区、产业带新格局初步形成,特色农业产值增长率达3.1%。但区域效应差异也较为明显,总体上是北方优于南方,黄河流域优于长江流域,传统农区优于一般地区。农业结构调整比较优势与调整效应匹配较好的省区有蒙、吉、豫、鲁、琼、陕、甘、宁、新和藏,匹配较差的省区有京、津、黑、鄂、桂、青。区域政策调控在农业结构调整中发挥着特殊重要的作用。

关键词: 农业结构调整, 比较优势, 区域效应, 粮食安全, 中国

Abstract:

With the beginning of strategic structure adjustment of national economy in 1997, the agricultural structure adjustment is placed on the important schedule in China. On the whole each province or autonomous region can focus on the all-side adjustment of quality-structure and varieties of agricultural products, agricultural industrial structure and regional structure at different scales. Comparative typical modes may reduce to modern urban agriculture, high-quality and special use agriculture, agricultural mode driven by supporting industries, agricultural mode guided by the market, agricultural mode led and supported by the government and agricultural mode independently managed by the farmers. They are on behalf of the feasible direction of the adjustment of China's agricultural structure. The increasing ratio of distinctive agriculture is 3.1% in 1997-2000. With thorough development of strategic adjustment of agricultural structure, superior regions of farm produce and distribution, industrial straps and new patterns of agricultural bases have formed. But due to the difference of comparative superiorities, the effects of the agricultural structure adjustment are quite different. On the whole, the north excels the south, the Yellow River drainage area excels the Yangtze River drainage area, and traditional agricultural areas excel other agricultural areas. The regulation of regional policies exerts especially important function on the agricultural structure adjustment. In recent years, "decreasing foodstuff crops production, enlarging distinctive economic crops production", have become a highlight of the adjustments of agricultural structure among the regions. From 1997 to 2000, foodstuff crops seeding areas and foodstuff yield in China respectively dropped 3.97% and 6.47%. And there are 22 provinces and municipalities in China whose foodstuff yields drop visibly. The agricultural structure adjustment focuses on boosting high-quality, mass-production and regional distinctiveness of the products, but we can not attend to one thing and lose another. Loosening the vigilantness of food security necessarily leads to the big drop of food security in China and we have to attach high importance to it.

Key words: agro-structural adjustment, comparative advantage, regional effect, food security