地理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (2): 201-208.doi: 10.11821/xb200302006

• 气象灾害 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔克拉玛干沙漠公路风沙危害与防治

韩致文,王涛,孙庆伟,董治宝,王训明   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所风沙物理与环境实验室,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2002-07-18 修回日期:2002-11-07 出版日期:2003-03-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:韩致文 (1963-), 男, 博士生, 副研究员, 主要从事风沙地貌与风沙工程研究。E-mail: hzwen@ns.lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(G2000048705); 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目(CACX210093)

Sand Harm in Taklimakan Desert Highway and Sand Control

HAN Zhiwen, WANG Tao, SUN Qingwei, DONG Zhibao, WANG Xunming   

  1. Laboratory of Blown Sand Physics and Desert Environment, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2002-07-18 Revised:2002-11-07 Online:2003-03-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    The National Key Project for Basic Research, No.G2000048705; Knowledge Innovation Project of the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, No.CACX210093

摘要:

塔克拉玛干沙漠公路447 km路段穿越新月形沙丘与沙丘链、复合横向沙垄以及高大复合纵向沙垄区,风沙危害极为严重,被誉为“世界公路建筑的奇迹”。为解决沙漠公路风沙防护体系构建的一系列科学与技术问题,沙漠学界随之开展了风沙运动规律,风沙危害的成因、强度、时空分异及其机械、化学、生物防治的理论与应用研究。本文对风沙危害及其防治研究的主要内容及研究进展进行了全面总结,认为塔克拉玛干沙漠公路风沙危害与防治的理论研究成果与实践应用水平取得突破性进展。

关键词: 塔克拉玛干, 沙漠公路, 风沙危害, 防治技术

Abstract:

This paper gives an overall summary on recent progress in the control of sand drift damages in the Taklimakan Desert highway. The following theoretical research results and practical aspects in the prevention of sand drift encroachment on the cross-desert highway have been undertaken: (1) With start-up wind speed and sand-moving power as physical parameters to describe sand drift damages, a function relation between sand transport rate (Q) and threshold wind velocity for sand movement (V) has been established. (2) Sand dune migration rate varies between 3.33 and 10.87 ma-1 and shows a linear relation with height (H), base area (S) and volume (V) of sand dune, where D = a-bH, D = a-bS, D = a+bV-c and D = a-bS-cV. (3) Sand drift damages exhibit a horizontal and vertical differentiation law, from this the calculating formula of sand damage intensity and five different damage sections are identitied. (4) Wind tunnel experiments on the sand control mechanism and effect of three kinds of film-covered sand bag barriers with a penetrating coefficients of β = 10%, β = 20% and β = 40% and three kinds of upright reed fences of 2.5 × 2.5 m, 5 × 5 m and 10 × 10 m show that there exist a retarded circumfluence zone, a lift-accelerating zone and a back flow zone around the sand bodies protected by film-covered sand bag barriers; wind velocity at the front edge of upright grids gradually increases and becomes stable at a distance of 15-20 m from the fence; nylon net fence has sand diversion function, with an optimal porosity of 40-50%. (5) The burial rate of sand control system mainly depends on landform types and sites where the system lies, start-up wind speed and intersection angle of the fence etc.

Key words: Taklimakan Desert, cross-desert highway, blown sand hazards, control technique