地理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (1): 139-146.doi: 10.11821/xb200301017

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

20世纪末中国土壤侵蚀的空间分布特征

许峰1,2, 郭索彦2, 张增祥1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院遥感应用研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 水利部水土保持监测中心,北京 100053
  • 收稿日期:2002-05-18 修回日期:2002-11-26 出版日期:2003-01-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:许峰 (1972-), 男, 水利部水土保持监测中心工程师, 中国科学院遥感应用研究所博士后, 目前主要从事水土保持监测研究。E-mail:xufeng@mwr.gov.cn
  • 基金资助:

    全国第二次土壤侵蚀遥感调查项目 (水保[1998]571号)

The Distribution of Soil Erosion in China at the End of the 20th Century

XU Feng1,2, 2, GUO Suoyan1   

  1. 1. Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Monitoring Center of Soil and Water Conservation, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100053, China
  • Received:2002-05-18 Revised:2002-11-26 Online:2003-01-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    Funded by the Second National Soil Erosion Survey, MWR SC[1978]No.571

摘要:

通过对中国2000年第二次土壤侵蚀遥感调查成果的分析,讨论了20世纪末中国土壤侵蚀空间分布特点。结果表明,水土流失仍然是我国持续影响面最大的环境问题。西部是我国土壤侵蚀的主要分布地区,轻度侵蚀对整个土壤侵蚀格局影响最大。水蚀的分布明显体现出地形的影响,轻度水蚀基本上分布在山地丘陵区 (含黄土地形区),严重水蚀近半分布在黄土地形区。轻度水蚀主要分布在耕地、林地、草地。严重水蚀、轻度风蚀面积均约半数分布在草地,各类草地的保护与整治均应是水、风蚀区水土保持的重要内容。土壤资源中,黄绵土是受到土壤侵蚀威胁最严重的类型。但对我国土壤侵蚀的进一步分析还需要更多对方法和相关数据分析的研究工作。

关键词: 土壤侵蚀, 空间分布, 遥感调查, 中国

Abstract:

This paper discussed the Spatial Distribution of Soil Erosion in China at the end of the 20th century basing on the second national soil erosion survey. The result indicated that soil erosion is still the first environmental problem in China. Soil erosion mainly occurs in the western region of China, and the slight erosion type exerts great impact on spatial erosion pattern. The distribution of hydraulic erosion shows the impact of landforms, namely, slight hydraulic erosion mainly occurs in mountainous and hilly areas, and half of the serious erosion occurs on the loess landforms. Farmland, forest land and grassland are the major landuse types of the slight hydraulic erosion, while the serious hydraulic erosion and slight wind erosion are mainly distributed on grassland. Thus, the protection and rehabilitation of the grassland is a key to either hydraulic and wind erosion control. The loessal soil (a major type of cultivated soil developed from loess mother material) is facing the most serious threat of soil erosion in China's soil resources. Further discussion on soil erosion distribution needs more research on the method and relevant data analysis.

Key words: soil erosion, spatial distribution, survey by remote sensing, China