地理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (1): 73-82.doi: 10.11821/xb200301009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

两汉时期黄河水患与中游土地利用之关系

王尚义   

  1. 太原师范学院,太原 030012
  • 收稿日期:2002-03-18 修回日期:2002-10-23 出版日期:2003-01-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:王尚义(1955-), 男, 教授, 博士, 从事历史地理与环境变迁研究20余年,出版专著3部, 发表论文30余篇。E-mail:wsy326@263.net

The Relationship of the Yellow River Flood and the Land Use in the Middle Reaches during the Han Dynasties

WANG Shangyi   

  1. Taiyuan Teacher's College, Taiyuan 030012, China
  • Received:2002-03-18 Revised:2002-10-23 Online:2003-01-25 Published:2010-09-09

摘要:

对史料重新进行了综合分析和解读,结合现代水文、地貌、土壤侵蚀的观测研究成果,就两汉黄河下游水患和中游土地利用方式的环境后果,提出了新的观点:(1)《后汉书》有关水患的记载简单笼统,但对伊洛河洪灾记载相对详细。当时伊洛河曾多次发生大水,甚至发生淹及洛阳城门和皇家园林的特大洪水,这些洪水涌入黄河干流同样可能导致下游水患;(2)自AD11河决魏郡后,一直到AD69王景治河的58年间,下游既未堵塞决口也未大规模治理,洪水来时任由泛滥。显然《后汉书》中没有具体记载是有意或无意漏记;(3) 对史籍中东汉大水、水出等记载逐年逐次排查,发现东汉水患频率高于西汉,灾情也更为严重。王景新河仅使下游安定了36年而非过去认为的800年或83年;(4) 东汉时期中游农耕人口比西汉减少近3/4,而河口镇至龙门间农耕人口减少九成以上,同时迁入大量游牧民族。原始游牧对天然植被破坏极大,是造成东汉黄河下游水患加剧的主要原因。

关键词: 两汉;黄河水患;黄河中游;土地利用

Abstract:

According to the re-analysis on historical materials and combined with the modern scientific achievements on hydrology, physiognomy and soil erosion, the author puts forth the new viewpoint on the environmental influence resulting from the floods which occurred in the lower reaches and the land use styles in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. (1) Recordation in Hou Han Shu about most of the floods is simple and brief but it is more detailed about Yilo river floods. The river flooded several times then and one of those even emerged some places of the Luoyang city. If the trunk stream of the Yellow River was flooded in, flooding might also occur in the lower reaches. (2) During the 58 years from the river bursting in 11 AD till Wang Jing taming the River in 69 AD, there had been neither dam burst due to channel blockage nor harnessing practices in the lower reaches. Flood deluged arbitrarily. It is obvious that there was no record in detail on flood because of omission on purpose or with on intention. (3) Investigate the record about the flood in the Eastern Han Dynasty one year after another, the author found the frequency of flood in the Eastern Han Dynasty is higher than that in the Western Han Dynasty as well as the situation of the disaster. Wang Jing's river harnessment made the lower reaches stable for 36 years rather than what was previously considered as 800 or 83 years. (4) The population engaged in farming was reduced by more than 3/4 around the middle reaches of the Yellow River in the Eastern Han Dynasty. And a great deal of nomadic tribes immigrated in at that time, and their way of life by substantial damaging natural vegetation led to the aggravation of flood disaster of the lower Yellow River.

Key words: Western Han and Eastern Han dynasties, Yellow River flood, middle reaches of the Yellow River, land use style