地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (7s): 113-119.doi: 10.11821/xb20027s017

• 人口与环境空间分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国北方荒漠土地的分布与气候背景分析

祁元,王一谋,冯毓荪,王建化,颜长珍   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2002-05-16 修回日期:2002-10-22 出版日期:2002-12-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:祁元 (1974- ), 男, 青海西宁人, 博士生, 主要从事生态遥感与地理信息系统工作。E-mail: qiy999@sohu.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目 (KZCX-Y-02-01-04)

The Distribution of Desertified Land in Northern China and the Analysis of the Climate Background

QI Yuan, WANG Yimou, FENG Yusun, WANG Jianhua, YAN Changzhen   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2002-05-16 Revised:2002-10-22 Online:2002-12-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX-Y-02-01-04

摘要:

针对危害自然与社会经济日益严重的荒漠化问题,利用遥感和地理信息系统方法,宏观调查了中国北方以沙漠沙地、戈壁和盐碱地为主的荒漠土地,建立了以沙漠为代表的荒漠土地数据库。荒漠土地呈现一定的空间分布规律。通过对直接影响荒漠土地发展的降水量和风力的气候背景的分析,发现荒漠土地分布地区少雨多风是其普遍特征,大部分荒漠土地处于干旱和极端干旱的降水条件下,同时中低风场对其有很大的影响。受降水量的分布影响,沙地呈现由东到西固定沙地和半固定沙地减少,而半流动沙地和流动沙地逐渐增多的分布,戈壁和盐碱地则更集中于西北内陆。

关键词: 荒漠土地, 沙漠, 沙地, 戈壁, 盐碱地, 遥感, 地理信息系统

Abstract:

Desertification is one of the most serious problems in China and in the world, and has seriously affected socioeconomic aspects and geographical environment. Based on remote sensing and geographic information system, we conducted extensive investigations on the desertified land, including desert, sandy land, Gobi, and saline-alkali land, in northern China and set up database of the desertified land. According to the database, about 41.2 % of the six provinces in northern China was covered by desertified land. The distribution of desertified land is regular, from east to west, desert area, Gobi, and saline-alkali land increased and sandy desert decreased. According to the analysis of the climate background, we found that low precipitation and strong wind constitute the common characteristics of the desertified land area, and most of the desertified land is located in the arid and extremely arid areas where the middle or low wind fields exert great influence on the desertified land. Affected by the special distribution of precipitation, from east to west, the area of the fixed and semi-fixed sandy land decreased whereas the shifting or semi-shifting sandy land increased gradually. Most Gobi and saline-alkali land is concentrated in Northwest China.

Key words: desertified land, desert, sandy land, Gobi, saline-alkali land, remote sensing, GIS