地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (7s): 94-100.doi: 10.11821/xb20027s014

• 人口与环境空间分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江平原沼泽湿地时空动态特征

张树清1, 庄毓敏2, 汪爱华1, 何颜芬1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130012;
    2. 吉林省地质调查院,长春 130061
  • 收稿日期:2002-05-15 修回日期:2002-09-15 出版日期:2002-12-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:张树清 (1963-), 男, 吉林白山市人, 博士, 副研究员, 主要从事湿地遥感与信息系统、GIS模型方面研究. E-mail: Shqzhang@263.net
  • 基金资助:

    科学院创新工程项目(KZCX2-308-3-5和INFO105-SDB-1-24)

The Spatial-temporal Dynamics of Marsh in the Sanjiang Plain

ZHANG Shuqing1, ZHUANG Yumin2, WANG Aihua1, HE Yanfen1   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China;
    2. Jilin Provincial Geologic Investigation Institute, Changchun 130061, China
  • Received:2002-05-15 Revised:2002-09-15 Online:2002-12-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No. KZCX2-308-3-5; No. INF105-SBD-1-24

摘要:

在遥感数据支持下,利用景观生态学的定量分析方法,分析了近20年三江平原区域湿地景观结构动态,同时以位于三江平原中北部的富锦县为例,分析了湿地与其它土地利用类型的转化。研究表明:三江平原湿地近20年大面积减少,但减少的趋势有所遏制,其中1980~1996年湿地面积减少了51.33 %,1996-2000年间较少了4.19 %;湿地的破碎度加大,1986-1996年间,斑块数量增加了326块,1996-2000年间又增加了18块,斑块数量增加的速度明显降低。湿地图斑破碎度有明显减少的趋势,表明湿地开发由大片沼泽湿地的破碎性开垦,转向已有湿地的边缘围垦上;开发后的湿地基本上变为水田和旱田;三江平原湿地分布的质心也有向西南偏移的趋势。三江湿地的大面积开发直接影响着三江地区自然环境,区域气候由“冷湿”转为“暖干”,使气温低的北部和积水深的东部的湿地进一步适合农业开发。三江平原湿地大面积减少是由人类活动引起的,依靠其自身力量无法实现湿地恢复。文中就三江平原湿地如何保护和恢复提出了相应建议。

关键词: 湿地, 动态特征, 三江平原, 景观格局, 沼泽

Abstract:

Based on remote sensing data, the regional landscape dynamic patterns of wetland are firstly analyzed with the help of the quantitative analyzing models in landscape ecology in the Sanjiang Plain during the past decades. At the same time, in order to realize the situation of wetland shift into other types of land use, we take Fujin county as an example to make further analysis of land use. Results show that the wetland in the Sanjiang Plain has greatly reduced in the past decades with the decreasing rate up to 51.33% from 1980 to 1996 and 4.19% from 1996 to 2000. This shows that the reducing rate has become less and less. The fragmentation of wetland was serious from 1986 to 1996 and less serious from 1996 to 2000. This indicates that the wetland reclamation in the Sanjiang Plain has turned into wetland inning instead of wetland fragmentation. Paddy field and dry land are the basic land use types converted from wetland reclamation. The center of mass of wetland distribution has been moving from the northeast to the southwest. The wetland mass reclamation in the Sanjiang Plain resulted in regional climate change. The cold and humid climate in the Sanjiang Plain has become warm and dry. This makes the wetland in the northern part where the climate is cold and the wetland in the eastern part where the water is log become easier to be reclaimed. The paper also puts forward suggestions to protect and rehabilitate the wetland in the Sanjiang Plain.

Key words: marsh, wetland, spatial and temporal dynamics, dynamic characteristics, Sanjiang Plain, landscape pattern