地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (6): 731-740.doi: 10.11821/xb200206014

• 土地利用与区域开发 • 上一篇    

海滨型与山岳型旅游地客流季节性比较 ——以三亚、北海、普陀山、黄山、九华山为例

陆林1,2, 宣国富1, 章锦河1, 杨效忠1, 汪德根1   

  1. 1. 安徽师范大学地理系,芜湖241000;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2002-01-25 修回日期:2002-07-12 出版日期:2002-11-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:陆 林 (1962- ), 博士, 教授。从事旅游地理教学和研究工作。2001年11月~2002年10月于中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所作高级访问学者。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(49871027)、1999年度教育部高等学校骨干教师资助计划项目

An Approach to Seasonality of Tourist Flows Between Coastland Resorts and Mountain Resorts: Examples of Sanya, Beihai, Mt. Putuo, Mt. Huangshan and Mt. Jiuhua

LU Lin1,2, XUAN Guofu1, ZHANG Jinhe1, YANG Xiaozhong1, WANG Degen1   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2002-01-25 Revised:2002-07-12 Online:2002-11-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 49871027; Core Teachers Project Funded by the Ministry of Education in 1999

摘要:

利用1996~2001年国内旅游客流月份分布数据,分析了三亚、北海、普陀山等海滨 (岛) 型旅游地和黄山、九华山等山岳型旅游地国内客流季节性特征。从旅游客流季节分布曲线看,三亚、九华山分别表现为“三峰两谷”和“双峰双谷”型,北海、普陀山、黄山均表现为“三峰三谷”型;从旅游客流集中指数R值看,黄山的R值最大,近年平均为5.7,三亚的R值最小,近年平均为1.3,并且黄山、三亚的R值变化幅度较小,具有一定的稳定性。北海、普陀山、九华山的R值介于黄山、三亚之间,近年来总体呈下降趋势。比较分析5处旅游地客流季节变化成因,发现它们均受自然季节性因素和社会季节性因素的影响。前者主要包括气候的舒适性、降水等,对于海滨 (岛) 型旅游地而言,海水温度、热带气旋活动影响也很重要;后者主要包括法定节假日、居民出游习惯等,对于富有宗教特色的旅游地,宗教节庆活动也是重要的影响因素。分析认为,自然季节性因素是造成以自然吸引物或自然-文化吸引物为特征的旅游地客流季节变化的主导因素,社会季节性因素只是在自然季节性因素形成的旅游季节变化的基础上产生叠加作用。

关键词: 旅游季节性, 海滨(岛)型旅游地, 山岳型旅游地

Abstract:

In this paper, data of monthly distribution of domestic tourist flows in recent years are applied to analyzing the seasonal characteristics of domestic tourist flows both in coastland resorts such as Sanya, Beihai, Mt. Putuo and mountain resorts such as Mt. Huangshan and Mt. Jiuhua. The seasonal distribution curves of tourist flows of Sanya and Mt. Jiuhua show the patterns of“3-peak-2-valley”and“2-peak-2-valley”respectively, while those of Beihai, Mt. Putuo and Mt. Huangshan all show a similar“3-peak-3-valley”pattern. As for the assembling index R of tourist flows, the highest one appears in Mt. Huangshan, with an average value of 5.7 in recent years; while that in Sanya is the lowest one, with an average value of 1.3. Besides, the R values of both Mt. Huangshan and Sanya vary slightly and maintain stability to a certain degree; while those of Beihai, Mt. Putuo and Mt. Jiuhua stay between the values of the above two sites, with a decreasing tendency in recent years in general. By analyzing the causes of seasonal variation of tourist flows in these tourist attractions, we conclude that they are affected by both natural seasonal factors and social seasonal factors. The former include mainly climate suitability, precipitation, etc., apart from which the temperature of seawater and impacts of tropical cyclone movement also play a very important role in coastland tourist resorts. The latter include mainly public holidays and residents' tour customs, besides which religious festivals also constitute an important factor affecting religious mountain resorts. Based on the above analyses, the authors have also further drawn some conclusions as follows: 1) Natural seasonal factors play the leading part in causing seasonal variation of tourist flows in natural attractions or natural-cultural attractions, while social seasonal factors only add some minor effects to the change on the basis of tourist seasonality caused by natural seasonal factors. 2) Among the five tourist attractions, the seasonal variations of those coastland resorts in southern China such as Sanya and Beihai vary slightly throughout the four seasons, act as a fairly strong tourism function as leisure resorts and thus still have a tendency to narrow the seasonal differences of tourist flows in the future; while those mountain resorts such as Mt. Huangshan retain a strong sightseeing function, which makes it much harder to alleviate the great variation in different seasons. 3) In a word, seasonal variation of tourist flows is an inherent characteristic in the development of tourist attractions. The great differences between peak period and off-season time can only be alleviated through series of effective countermeasures so as to enhance the economic, social and ecological benefits of tourist attractions.

Key words: tourist seasonality, coastland resorts, mountain resorts