地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (6): 717-722.doi: 10.11821/xb200206012

• 土地利用与区域开发 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄土丘陵小流域土地利用变化对水土流失的影响

傅伯杰1, 邱扬2, 王军3, 陈利顶1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心系统生态室, 北京 100085;
    2. 北京师范大学资源与环境科学系, 北京 100875;
    3. 国土资源部土地整理中心, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2002-03-11 修回日期:2002-08-15 出版日期:2002-11-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:傅伯杰 (1958- ),男, 研究员,博士,主要从事自然地理学和景观生态学研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重大研究计划项目 (90102018)

Effect Simulations of Land Use Change on the Runoff and Erosion for a Gully Catchment of the Loess Plateau, China

FU Bojie1, QIU Yang2, WANG Jun3, CHEN Liding1   

  1. 1. Department of Systems Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085, China;
    2. Department of Resources and Environmental Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Center, Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100035, China
  • Received:2002-03-11 Revised:2002-08-15 Online:2002-11-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 90102018

摘要:

在土壤侵蚀模型LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model) 校正的基础上,模拟了陕北黄土丘陵沟壑区大南沟小流域5种土地利用方案的水土流失效应,旨在探讨土地利用变化对流域出口水土流失的影响。研究结果表明:流域出口的洪峰流速、径流总量和侵蚀总量的大小顺序为:1975年>1998年>25度退耕>20度退耕>15度退耕。1975年和1998年25度以上的陡坡耕地和休闲地均退耕还林还草,这2种土地利用格局的径流和侵蚀模拟值都显著大于3种退耕方案。在3种退耕方案中,20度和15度以上的陡坡耕地和休闲地逐步转变为果园/经济林地,3种退耕方案之间的水土流失差异不显著。相对于1975年土地利用来说,1998年土地利用能降低洪峰流速、径流量和侵蚀量约5%~10%;3种退耕方案的减流减沙效益更加显著,可以降低洪峰流速、径流量和侵蚀量约40%~50%。

关键词: 黄土丘陵小流域, 土地利用变化, 水土流失, LISEM土壤侵蚀模型

Abstract:

Based on the calibration of LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model), five land use scenarios consisting of the previous in 1975 (LU75), present in 1998 (LU98) and future land use pattern were used to simulate the effects of the land use change on runoff and erosion at outlet of the Da Nangou catchment on the Loess Plateau, China. The future land-use maps were made based on three land-use scenarios in which cropland areas are restricted to slope gradients smaller than 25 (FA25), 20 (FA20) and 15 degrees (FA15). Two stages were recognized based on the comparison analysis on these five maps. In the first stage from LU75, LU98 to FA25, the area of the wood/shrub land increases while those of the wasteland, fallow land and cropland decrease, and the orchard/cash-tree land remains the same. During the second stage consisting of the FA25, FA20 and FA15, there is a gradual decrease in the cropland and fallow land and a gradual increase in the orchard/cash-tree land; the other land-use types remain the same. According to the simulation, the predicted peak-velocity, runoff and erosion at outlet decrease significantly if the slope cropland and fallow land are replaced by other types of land use. The peak-velocity, runoff and erosion show the same sequences for different land use patterns in the following order: land use in 1975 (LU75) > land use in 1998 > 25-degree-limit scenario > 20-degree-limit scenario > 15-degree-limit scenario. The runoff and erosion for LU75 and LU98 with much more cropland and fallow land is significantly greater than that for the three degree-limit scenarios with sharp increases in area of wood/shrub land. However, there is little difference in runoff and erosion among the three degree-limit scenarios since there is only a gradual decrease in the cropland and fallow land and a gradual increase in the orchard/cash-tree land. Based on the comparison with the land use in 1975, the predicted peak-velocity, runoff and erosion decrease by about 5-10% for land use in 1998, while the predicted decreases for the three slope-degree-limit scenarios are much larger, ranging between 40% and 50%.

Key words: gully-catchment of the Loess Plateau, land use change, loss of soil and water, LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model)