地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (6): 685-692.doi: 10.11821/xb200206008

• 自然环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

东辽河流域坡面系统生态需水研究

严登华1, 何岩1,2, 邓伟1, 张树文1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所, 长春 130012; 2 中国科学院人事局, 北京 100864
  • 收稿日期:2001-12-20 修回日期:2002-07-09 出版日期:2002-11-25 发布日期:2002-11-25
  • 作者简介:严登华 (1976- ), 男, 博士生。主要从事生态水文学与水环境安全调控研究。E-mail: denghuay@yeah.net
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院资源与生态环境重点研究项目 (KZ952-J1-067) 和中国科学院知识创新工程重大研究项目 (KZCX1-Y-02)

Ecological Water Demand by the Slope System in the East Liaohe River Basin

YAN Denghua1, HE Yan1,2, DENG Wei1, ZHANG Shuwen1   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China;
    2. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864, China
  • Received:2001-12-20 Revised:2002-07-09 Online:2002-11-25 Published:2002-11-25
  • Supported by:

    The Key Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KZ952-J1-067; The Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX1-Y-02

摘要:

以东辽河流域累积46个测站52年的水文资料和1986年、1996年、2000年Landsat TM数字图像为源信息,在分析景观格局、流域降水和径流时空分布的基础上,探讨东辽河流域坡面系统生态需水的时空变化和平衡分区。东辽河流域坡面系统景观的优势度较强,斑块的形状较为规整,但分布较散,同时受到人类活动的干预非常强。水文情势的空间分异明显。东辽河流域坡面系统全年平均生态需水量为504.72 mm (324.08 mm~618.89 mm),5~9月份生态需水量占全年生态需水总量的88.29 %,下游形成生态需水的高值区。坡面系统生态需水量的极端满足程度仅为90 %,全年和生长季 (5~9月) 生态缺水区分别占了全流域总面积的60.47 %和74.01 %,从生态需水的缺水数量和缺水区域来看,缺水区域大的趋势尤为严峻,必需采取全流域用水的综合调配。

关键词: 东辽河流域, 坡面系统, 生态需水, GIS&RS

Abstract:

Based on GIS and RS with the source information of hydrological data of 46 hydrological monitoring stations during the 52 years and the digital imageries of Landsat TM in 1986, 1996 and 2000, the landscape patterns, precipitation and runoff in the East Liaohe River Basin were analyzed. With the result of the above analysis, the spatial and temporal changes of the ecological water demand (EWD) in the slope systems of the East Liaohe River Basin were derived. Landscapes in the East Liaohe River Basin have great dominance and the standard form, however, the distribution of the landscape in that basin is disperse and strongly disturbed by human activities. The hydrological regime has distinct spatial variations. The annual average EWD of the slope system in the East Liaohe River Basin over years is 504.72 mm (between 324.08 mm and 618.89 mm), and that in the growing period (between May and September) is 88.29% of that of the whole year with the lower reaches of the basin facing crisis of the EWD. The ultimate satisfaction of the EWD of the slope system is 90%. The areas lacking of the EWD in the whole year and in the growing period are 60.47% and 74.01% of the whole basin, respectively. The trend of area lacking of the EWD is particularly serious with respect of the quantity and area lacking of the EWD.

Key words: East Liaohe River Basin, slope system, EWD, GIS &, RS