地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (6): 648-654.doi: 10.11821/xb200206003

• 自然环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河游荡河段河床形态调整对洪水过程的响应

张欧阳1,2, 许炯心2, 张红武1   

  1. 1. 清华大学水利系, 北京100084;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2002-02-09 修回日期:2002-08-02 出版日期:2002-11-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:张欧阳 (1971-), 男, 土家族, 重庆酉阳人, 博士后。主要从事河流地貌及河流模型试验研究。E-mail: zhangouy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; oyzhang71@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金委和水利部资助重大项目 (59890200) 及优秀博士论文作者专项基金资助项目 (199935)

The Response of the Channel Form Adjustment at the Wandering-braided Reaches of the lower Yellow River to Flood Events

ZHANG Ouyang1,2, XU Jiongxin2, ZHANG Hongwu1   

  1. 1. Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2002-02-09 Revised:2002-08-02 Online:2002-11-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.59890200; The special project supported by the Ministry of Education for outstanding Ph.D. dissertation author, No.199935

摘要:

以黄河流域1950~1985年200余场洪水资料为基础,并增加了最近的实验资料,分析了黄河下游游荡河段不同含沙量洪水过程中河床形态的调整过程。结果表明,由洪水过程所导致的河床形态变化是相当剧烈的,且与含沙量密切相关,表现出非线性的变化规律。当含沙量较小时,随含沙量的增大,洪水后河床宽深比增大,当含沙量增大到一定程度后再增大时,宽深比随含沙量的增大而减小。这一结果为修正Schumm关于河床形态变化的定性预测关系提供了新的依据。

关键词: 河床横断面形态调整, 洪水过程, 复杂响应, 黄河下游

Abstract:

Based on data from over 200 flood events covering a wide range of sediment concentration of the lower Yellow River from 1950 to 1985 and recent experimental data, this paper reveals the complex response of channel transverse adjustment at the wandering-braided reaches of the lower Yellow River to flood events with different sediment concentrations. The results show that the flood events can induce large extent of channel transverse deformation. And flood events with different sediment concentrations have different behaviors of fill-scour and ways of channel adjustment. The variations of the channel cross-section are firmly related to and exhibit complex relationships with the variations of sediment concentrations of flood events. When the sediment concentration of the flood events is low, the width to depth ratio of the channel will increase with it and when it increases to a certain degree to the range of hyper-concentrated flow, the width to depth ratio will decrease with the increase of sediment concentration. The channel metamorphosis controlled by channel fill and scour behavior is largely affected by the situations whether flood overflows floodplain or not. The over floodplain floods often carry heavy sediment load and cause the flow scouring in main channel and the sediment depositing on floodplain in large quantities, and as a result, the shallow and deep channel is formed. From the above results, the qualitative prediction relationships of river metamorphosis of Schumm's could be modified.

Key words: transverse channel form adjustment, flood events with different sediment concentration, complex response, the Yellow River