地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (5): 619-624.doi: 10.11821/xb200205015

• 水资源研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

张家界水环境演变与旅游发展关系

全华1, 陈田1, 杨竹莘2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 东北财经大学, 大连 116025
  • 收稿日期:2002-01-17 修回日期:2002-05-09 出版日期:2002-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:全华 (1965- ), 男, 博士生, 东北财经大学副教授。E-mail: quan-hua@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点科技项目 (攻关) 计划专题 (96-920-37-01)

The Dynamic Threshold and the Tendency in Zhangjiajie Tourist and Ecological Environment

QUAN Hua1, CHEN Tian1, YANG Zhuxin2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Dongbei University of Finance & Economics, Dalian 116025, China
  • Received:2002-01-17 Revised:2002-05-09 Online:2002-09-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Key Science and Technology project (tackle key problem) plan subject (96-920-37-01)

摘要:

通过实地监测并全面分析张家界国家森林公园水环境演变趋势,发现金鞭溪水质下降最为明显,而且随着游客的逐年增多,呈现出加速恶化的趋势。金鞭溪水质恶化主要表现为蓝藻、绿藻迅速繁殖,感官质量下降。主要原因是上游接待区锣鼓塔排出的污水中总磷超标。通过建立基于环境脆弱因子的动态阈值模型,计算得出:在不超出张家界景区最为脆弱的环境因子---金鞭溪水质标准:总磷≤0.02前提下,金鞭溪上游接待区住宿设施生态阈值:春季临界床位数为1186,夏季为3057,冬季为545,秋季为333。

关键词: 张家界, 生态旅游, 环境演变, 动态阈值模型

Abstract:

Zhangjiajie was the first National Forest Park in China. It is also a National Key Scenic Zone, a National Geological Park,and a World Natural Heritage site. With the development of Zhangjiajie's tourist industry, the ecological environment quality of scenic zones began to deteriorate yearly. And this attracted the attention of the World Heritage Spot Committee of UNESCO. The main ecological environmental problems in Zhangjiajie core scenic spots are: The water quality in Jinbian Stream has evidently been deteriorated.. Having done some field monitoring and overall analysis of the trend of environment in Zhangjiajie, we found that the influence of accommodting facilities on the environment is greater than that of the other amusement facilities. So the major influential factor of Zhangjiajie tourist ecological environment is the influence of accommodating facilities on environment. The great changes in the variation of the water quality monitoring value in scenic spots have taken place. That means the water body is the most fragile environmental factor in the ecological environment of the scenic spots. Due to the increasing number of tourists year after year, the deteriorative trend of ecological environment has appeared. As we know from the following analysis: (1) The renovation of the scenic spots environment often fail to focus on the accommodating facilities even though they are not located within the scenic spot, yet still in the upstream area. (2) The fragile ecological environment factor---the changeable curvies of water body environment quality are similar with the increasing curves of the accommodated tourists. The former is left far behind the latter. (3) The sympton of the water deterioration can be seen from the fact that blue algae, and green algea, the phosphate has surpassed the standard. They are the causes of the deterioration of the water quality in the scenic spots. (4) The scope of accommodating facilities in the upstream area has surpassed its ecological threshold, and the excessive use of phosphate in detergents has led to the total phosphate's surpassing the standard. (5) Because of the different number of residents and services, different seasons, areas, so different drainage processing methods should be used. A threshold model for the most fragile environment factor is built into this paper. From the calculation we recommend that: On condition of no surpassing the set water standard in Zhangjiajie---the most fragile environment factor, that is the total phosphate content ≤0.02 ---the ecological threshold of the tourist environment in the upstream of scenic spots. The number of tourists be as follows: n Spring 1186 beds, Summer 3057 beds, Autumn 545, Winter 333.. Different types of scenic zones, the fragile ecological environment factors are different from each other. We follow the same process as this paper recommends,we can calculate the threshold of other scenic zones in the country.

Key words: ecotourism, environment tendency, dynamic threshold model, Zhangjiajie