地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (5): 539-546.doi: 10.11821/xb200205005

• 生态环境的区域差异 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国粮食生产潜力和化肥增产效率 的区域分异

曾希柏1, 陈同斌2, 胡清秀3, 林忠辉2   

  1. 1. 中国农业科学院土壤肥料研究所, 北京100081;
    2. 中国科学院地理和资源研究所环境修复室, 北京100101;
    3. 中国农业科学院农业自然资源和农业区划研究所, 北京100081
  • 收稿日期:2001-12-20 修回日期:2002-07-09 出版日期:2002-09-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:曾希柏 (1965- ), 男, 博士, 副研究员。主要从事农业资源利用、农业生态与环境保护等研究。通讯联系人:陈同斌 E-mail: chentb@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家"九五"攻关项目96-013-01-04的部分内容。

Grain Productivity and Its Potential as Related to Fertilizer Consumption among Different Counties of China

ZENG Xibo1, CHEN Tongbin2, HU Qingxiu3, LIN Zhonghui2   

  1. 1. Inst. of Soil and Fertilizer, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;
    2. Laboratory of Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Inst. of Agricultural Natural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2001-12-20 Revised:2002-07-09 Online:2002-09-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Key Project for the Ninth Five-Year-Plan, No.96-013-01-04

摘要:

根据我国各地区1990~1998年化肥施用量和作物产量,以粮食作物为主要研究对象,从不同年份单位播种面积的粮食产量和肥料施用量变化,求出相应的单位播种面积可能达到的粮食生产潜力,并以此为基础计算出该地区单位播种面积的粮食的增产潜力。研究表明:我国粮食单产大多在3500~5250 kg/hm2范围,粮食单产增产潜力一般在300~600 kg/hm2左右,增施化肥的增产效果一般在5~10 kg/kg (粮食/化肥) 范围,但是各地区的差异较大。对不同地区的比较研究表明:我国粮食单产 (5372 kg/hm2) 和生产潜力 (7462 kg/hm2) 均东部地区 (高施肥水平) 最高;中部地区 (中等施肥水平) 的粮食单产和生产潜力居中,分别为4940 kg/hm2和7216 kg/hm2;西部地区 (低施肥水平) 的粮食单产和生产潜力最低,分别为3844 kg/hm2和5470 kg/hm2。按播种面积计算,粮食单产的增产潜力以西部地区最高,平均达948 kg/hm2;东部地区局中,平均为754 kg/hm2,中部地区则相应较低,为714 kg/hm2。化肥增产效率(增施单位化肥的粮食增产量)以西部地区最高,达9.41 kg/kg (粮食/化肥);中部地区居中,为7.17 kg/kg (粮食/化肥);而东部地区最低,为-11.1 kg/kg (粮食/化肥)。从全国来看,东部地区虽然粮食生产潜力大,但是增产潜力很小,由于施肥量较大,增施化肥的增产效果不明显,因此,今后我国的化肥应该重点考虑投向中部和西部地区。

关键词: 化肥, 粮食, 生产潜力, GIS, 中国

Abstract:

According to the total amount and statues of chemical fertilizer consumption, and grain yields during the last 10 years (1990-1998) in each county of China, regional differences in grain productivity and grain productivity increased by additional application of fertilizers were analyzed and compared. Results of the study are concluded as follows: Grain productivity and grain yield increased by additional application of fertilizers in most of the counties varied from 3500 kg/hm2 to 5250 kg/hm2 and from 300 kg/hm2 to 600 kg/hm2, respectively. The index of grain yields increased (IGYI) by additional application of per kilogram of fertilizers varied from 5 kg grain/ kg fertilizer to 10 kg grain/ kg fertilizer. The grain yield and grain productivity were found to be 5372 kg/hm2 and 7462 kg/hm2 in Eastern Region with high input of fertilizers, to be 4940 kg/hm2 and 7216 kg/hm2 in the Central Region with middle input of fertilizers, and to be 3844 kg/hm2 and 5470 kg/hm2 in the Western Region with low input of fertilizers. It was indicated that potential of grain productivity increase per sowing area was 754 kg/hm2 in the Central Region that was lower than that in the Western Region (948 kg/hm2) and higher than that in the Eastern Region (714 kg/hm2). The IGYI for different regions were found to decrease as the following order: Western Region (9.41 kg grain /kg fertilizer) > Central Region (7.17 kg grain /kg fertilizer) > Eastern Region (-11.1 kg grain /kg fertilizer). It is concluded that the Eastern Region had the highest grain productivity, but had lowest potential for yield increase when more fertilizer is used because less response of grain yield was found to the additional application of fertilizer. However, the response of grain yields in the Western and Central Regions were higher to the additional application of fertilizer Therefore, more fertilizer should be used in the Western and Central Regions to improve China's grain production.

Key words: chemical fertilizer, grain, productivity, regional difference, GIS, China