地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (3): 335-344.doi: 10.11821/xb200203010

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

华北平原典型农田水、热与CO2通量的测定

张永强1,2, 沈彦俊2, 刘昌明1,2, 于强1, 孙宏勇2, 贾金生1, 唐常源3, A.Kondoh3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院石家庄农业现代化研究所,石家庄 050021;
    3. 日本千叶大学 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
  • 收稿日期:2001-12-16 修回日期:2002-03-26 出版日期:2002-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:张永强 (1976- ), 男, 内蒙古包头市人, 博士生。主要从事界面水文过程、作物生长模型的应用研究。E-mail: zhangyq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学重大基金项目 (40071008, 49871020, 49890330);河北省院士节水项目 (01220703D);中日 国际合作项目及地理科学与资源研究所领域前沿项目 (CXIOG-C003-03)

Measurement and Analysis of Water, Heat and CO2 Flux from a Farmland in the North China Plain

ZHANG Yongqiang1,2, SHEN Yanjun2, LIU Changming1,2, Yu Qiang1, SUN Hongyong2, JIA Jinsheng1, TANG Changyuan3, AKIHIKO Kondoh3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Institute of Agricultural Modernization Research, Shijiazhuang 050021, China;
    3. Chiba University, 33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
  • Received:2001-12-16 Revised:2002-03-26 Online:2002-05-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 40071008, 49871020, 49890330; Academician Agricultural Water-saving Foundation, Hebei Province of China, No. 01220703D; Special Fund for Major State Basic Research Project, No. CXIOG-C003-03

摘要:

在中国科学院栾城农业生态试验站用波文比-能量平衡法与涡度相关技术对净辐射通量 (Rn)、潜热通量 (λE)、感热通量 (H)、土壤热通量 (G) 与冠层CO2通量 (FCO2) 进行了长期定位研究。结果显示Rn大部分用于作物潜热的消耗,连续2年4个生长季λE/Rn都在70 %以上,在作物生育盛期,夏玉米λE/Rn略高于冬小麦,H/Rn都在15%左右,G/Rn 在5 % - 13 %之间,且冬小麦G/Rn明显高于夏玉米。蒸发比值 (EF) 在不同的理想环境条件下,随着可供能量 (Rn-G) 的增加表现出先迅速下降,后缓慢下降,最后趋于稳定的趋势,并在冬小麦环境条件下得到了验证。直角双曲线模型可以模拟FCO2随光通量密度 (PPFD) 的响应过程。晴天冠层水分利用效率(WUE) 不是在正午出现最高值,当PPFD达到1500 μmol m-2 s-1左右时,WUE却略有下降。

关键词: 潜热通量, 感热通量, CO2通量, 水分利用效率, 华北平原

Abstract:

Surface energy fluxes including net radiation (Rn), latent heat flux (λE), sensible heat flux (H), soil heat flux (G) and carbon dioxide flux (FCO2) were measured by Bowen-ratio energy balance technique and eddy correlation technique from a farmland at Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences in the North China Plain from 1999 to 2001. Seasonal variation of a ratio of latent heat flux (λE) divided by net radiation flux (Rn) showed that Rn is mainly used to evapotranspirate by crops. λE/Rn was all higher than 70% during the four observed seasons in the two years. λE/Rn above maize canopy is slightly higher than that above winter wheat canopy. Seasonal average ratio of sensible heat flux (H) divided by Rn keeps about 15% above the field surface; seasonal average ratio of conductive heat flux (G) divided by Rn varies between 5% and 13%, and the average G/Rn from wheat canopy is evidently higher than that from maize canopy. Under given environmental conditions, when the available energy (Rn-G) is less than 200 W/m2, evaporative fraction (EF) decreases sharply; below Rn-G≈200 W/m2, EF decreases gradually until stabilizing at some specific value less than 1.0. The response process of EF to Rn-G under winter wheat field conditions is similar to that under the given conditions. With the increase of photosynthesis photo flux density (PPFD), carbon dioxide flux (FCO2) changes according to the curve of Michaelis-Mente. Water use efficiency (WUE) does not show the maximum when PPFD is the maximum at noon. On the contrary, WUE gradually decreased with PPFD equal to 1500 μmol m-2 s-1.

Key words: latent heat flux (λE), sensible heat flux (H), carbon dioxide flux, water use efficiency (WUE), the North China Plain