地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (3): 253-266.doi: 10.11821/xb200203001

• 论文 •    下一篇

青藏公路对区域土地利用和景观格局的影响——以格尔木至唐古拉山段为例

张镱锂1, 阎建忠1,3, 刘林山1, 摆万奇1, 李双成2, 郑度1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学系, 北京100875;
    3. 西南农业大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400716
  • 收稿日期:2002-01-26 修回日期:2002-04-08 出版日期:2002-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:张镱锂 (1962- ), 男, 吉林人, 研究员。从事生物地理学、土地利用和土地覆被的理论和应用基础研究。发表论著40余篇, 成果获省部级奖励4次。E-mail: zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 (G1998040800) 及中科院地理科学与资源研究所知识创新工程领域前沿项目 (CXIOG-E01-01和CXIOG-A00-03-02)

Effects of Qinghai-Xizang Highway on Land Use and Landscape Pattern Change: from Golmud to Tanggulashan Pass

ZHANG Yili1, YAN Jianzhong1,3, LIU Linshan11, BAI Wanqi11, LI Shuangcheng2, ZHENG Du1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Department of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Resources and Environment College, Southwest Agricultural University, Chongqing 400716, China
  • Received:2002-01-26 Revised:2002-04-08 Online:2002-05-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Key Basic Research Special Fund, No.G1998040800; Key Project of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of CAS for Basic Research, No.CXIOG-E01-01; No.CXIOG-A00-03-02

摘要:

根据1995年和2000年土地利用数据, 运用ARC/INFO软件和景观生态学方法, 研究了青藏公路沿线格尔木、曲麻莱、治多3个县 (市) 的土地利用变化和景观格局变化, 修订了单一土地利用类型动态度计算公式,重点分析了公路缓冲带的土地利用变化、景观格局变化和建设用地缓冲带的土地利用变化。主要结论如下:①研究区建设用地增加迅速, 林地、水域、未利用土地增加, 耕地大量减少, 草地退化严重, 其中曲麻莱县草地减少22.8 %,未利用土地增加43.96 %; ②景观破碎化程度加剧, 分维数、多样性指数和景观破碎度均增加; ③与其它交通干线对沿线的“轴向”影响不同, 该段青藏公路以“点”型的辐射效应为标志, 且仅仅影响建设用地周围的区域, 格尔木市的影响范围是3 km, 五道梁的影响范围是1 km;④K=(Ua + Ub - 2Uc) Ua -1T -1 ×100%, 可准确地反映单一土地利用类型变化特点。

关键词: 江河源区, 土地利用, 景观特征值, 土地利用动态度, 青藏公路

Abstract:

Based on digital land use maps of 1995, 2000 and road map of Resources and Environment Data Center of IGSNRR, CAS, the land use and landscape pattern change(LULPC) of Golmud, Qumaleb, Zhidoi are studied, in macro-scale, exerting Arc/GIS 8.1 and landscape ecology methods. LULPC of road buffer zones and the bound of construction land expansion is stressed. The conclusions are given as follows: 1. Prominent changes have taken place in land use and landscape pattern from 1995 to 2000. (a) Woodland area increased 0.4%, grassland area reduced 6.26%, water area increased 7.17%, construction land area increased 323.8%, unused land area increased 6.96%, cultivated land area reduced 51.43%. Especially, land degraded seriously, grassland area reduced 22.8% and unused land area increased 43.96% in Qumaleb. (b) The comprehensive land use dynamic degree is 2.25 and the land use dynamic degree of construction land is the biggest, while cultivated land takes the second place and woodland takes the least. (c) The land use degree comprehensive index is 195.2 in 1995, and 156.4 in 2000, reduced 38.8. The fundamental reason is that a great deal of grassland had been transformed into unused land in 5 years. (d) Landscape changed dramatically. The sum of patches increased 1999 and the landscape fragmentation degree increased from 0.115 to 0.124, showing the enhancement of land fragmentation degree. The diversity index increased from 1.308 to 1.331, implying the enhancing of landscape heterogeneity. The fractal degree increased from 1.453 to 1.456 and the shape of patches got complicated. 2. Differed from the corridor effect of other traffic main lines, the corridor effect of this section of road is not obvious and its“point”radiation effect can be seen easily. (a) The land use degree comprehensive index of road buffer zones dropped except the 1 km zone, 40-45 km zone and 50-60 km zone. The land use dynamic index enhanced when the distance to the road get longer, obviously differing from other study areas due to sparse population and sluggish economic development. The landscape diversity index and fractal dimension has no relationship with the distance to the road. (b) The expanding range of Golmud City is confined in 3 km buffer, for Wudaoliang buffer, it is 1 km. No land use change happened in Nanshankou buffer. 3. The new formula ( K = (Ua +Ub - 2Uc) Ua -1T-1 ×100% ) is used to nicely define the land use dynamic degree exactly.

Key words: land use change, land use degree comprehensive index, the diagnostic values of landscape pattern, land use dynamic degree, Qinghai-Xizang Highway