地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (2): 174-184.doi: 10.11821/xb200202007

• 环境演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国热带红树林的发展及其地理背景

黄镇国,张伟强   

  1. 广州地理研究所,广州 510070
  • 收稿日期:2001-06-04 修回日期:2001-09-26 出版日期:2002-03-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:黄镇国 (1935- ), 男, 研究员, 主要从事地貌与第四纪研究。E-mail:zwq@gis.sti.gd.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(49771010和40071011)

The Evolution of Mangrove and Its Geographic Background in Tropical China

HUANG Zhen-guo, ZHANG Wei-qiang   

  1. Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070, China
  • Received:2001-06-04 Revised:2001-09-26 Online:2002-03-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 49771010, 40071011

摘要:

参照约30个红树林孢粉分析实例,探讨中国南方晚第三纪以来红树林的发展。红树林开始出现于晚始新世;晚第三纪其分布比今偏北;第四纪冰期使红树林向南退缩至雷州半岛北部。末次间冰期42 000~25 000 a BP红树林扩展,以海桑属为代表的典型红树林的北界从现今的19o30'N扩展到23o40'N。末次冰期红树林衰落。早全新世9 600~7 900 a BP红树林复兴,中全新世达到繁盛,向北分布到闽江口(26oN),与现今的北界一致,但是中全新世以来海桑属在19o30'N以北不再出现,奠定了现今红树林地带性分布的格局。

关键词: 红树林, 热带, 第四纪, 中国

Abstract:

According to palynological analysis of about thirty samples, the developing process of mangrove since the late Tertiary in the tropical zone of China is discussed. The mangrove can be divided into two types, i.e., the typical and general. The former is represented by Sonneratia, Rhizophora, etc., which only grow in the southern tropical zone. At present the north limit of typical mangrove lies in 19o30'N and that of general mangrove, about 26oN in China. The oldest sporo-pollens of mangrove have been found in the Oligocene stratum in Zhujiang River estuary basin. From Miocene to Pliocene the north limit of mangrove reached Japan. But it was returned to about 22oN, i.e., the northern part of Leizhou Peninsula of Guangdong during Early Pleistocene.It is worth noting that the Last Interglacial Period was a prosperous stage for the evolution of mangrove. The pollens of Sonneratia dated at 42 000~32 696 a BP can be seen in Chenghai of Hanjiang Delta. It shows that the north limit of typical mangrove moved northwards from 19o30'N at present to 23o40'N at that time, showing an amplitude of 2~2.5 oC of rise in temperature than present.The pollens of Sonneratia with datings of 36 230~25 410 aBP have been found also in Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Shuidong and Haikou. The eight palynological profiles from Fuzhou to Beihai indicate that the mangrove disappeared during the Last Glacial Period, which can be seen only in some profiles in South China Sea but the pollens of Sonneratia and Rhizophora were carried by the sea current from southern South China Sea. Up to Early Holocene (9 656~7 912 aBP) the mangrove revived, in which about 7 000 aBP was another prosperous stage corresponding to the Megathermal in Holocene. Sonneratia caseolaris and Bruguiera sexangula have been found from the profiles in Shenzhen and Hong Kong and thus it can be deduced that the typical mangrove developed once again in Middle Holocene and its north limit was moved northwards to 22o20'N, i.e., the estuary of Zhujiang River.It is reported that there are pollens of Acgiceras corniculatum in the Middle Holocene stratum even in Ningbo (29o50'N) of Zhejiang. However they are not developed in situ because about twenty sites of Holocene mangrove pollens are found in the seafloor of East China Sea but they are carried by the Kuroshio or Taiwan Warm Current from south.The north limit of distribution of mangrove at present (26oN) is formed in Middle Holocene. After Middle Holocene the typical mangrove disappeared north of 19o30'N in China's tropical zone but there is Sonneratia alba in Iriomote Island (25oN) of Japan at present. It is also influenced by the Kuroshio, and the cold-resistant Kandelia candel is growing in Kagoshima Bay of Japan, where is the northernmost location of mangrove in the west Pacific Ocean.

Key words: mangrove, tropical zone, China