地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (2): 127-134.doi: 10.11821/xb200202001

• 区域开发 •    下一篇

区域最小人均耕地面积与耕地资源调控

蔡运龙,傅泽强,戴尔阜   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学系, 土地科学中心, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2001-11-29 修回日期:2002-01-07 出版日期:2002-03-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:蔡运龙 (1948- ), 男, 贵州人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师。从事综合自然地理学、区域综合开发、土地科学、自然资源评价与利用规划、地理学理论与方法等方面的研究。E-mail: caiyl@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40171004)

The Minimum Area Per Capita of Cultivated Land and Its Implication for the Optimization of Land Resource Allocation

CAI Yun-long, FU Ze-qiang, DAI Er-fu   

  1. Department of Urban and Environmental Sciences & The Center for Land Study, Peking University;Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, The Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2001-11-29 Revised:2002-01-07 Online:2002-03-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 40171004

摘要:

耕地资源对农业和国民经济可持续发展起着不可替代的基础性作用。中国人均耕地资源短缺,快速工业化、城市化进程对耕地的占用使耕地资源更趋紧张。目前的市场机制必然驱动耕地资源不断向获利更多的用途转移,最终会危急食物安全。因此,创新耕地资源利用与保护的调控机制已迫切之至。基于中国耕地资源流失原因及态势的分析,提出了最小人均耕地面积和耕地压力指数概念,并以此为基础提出了构建耕地资源利用和管理调控机制的思路。实际数据分析结果表明,以最小人均耕地面积和耕地压力指数作为耕地保护的基本标准,能因地制宜地兼顾食物安全和经济发展对土地的需求,具有显著的科学性和可操作性。

关键词: 耕地资源, 最小人均耕地面积, 耕地压力指数, 调控途径, 中国

Abstract:

Cultivated land, different from other resources, is fundamental to the sustainable development of Chinese agriculture, society and economy. Market mechanism inevitably drives cultivated land into industrial and urban uses. Rapid industrialization and urbanization lead the scarce cultivated land resources to more crises. So market is a failure to allocate this kind of resource which can be regarded as common property in a certain sense. Government intervention is necessary for optimization allocation of cultivated land. Current policy of macro-administration for cultivated land conservation is oriented to total quantitative control. Every province is demanded that the total number of cultivated land remains not decreased. This policy is difficult for practicing because it does not consider various situations in different regions. For example, in eastern provinces where rapid industrialization and urbanization is proceeding and reserved arable land is scarce, the total number of cultivated land will inevitably decrease unless at the cost of lowering the economic growth. Therefore, it is necessary to innovate the policy of cultivated land resources conservation and utilization. The authors put forward the concept of minimum area per capita of cultivated land (MAPCCL) as a new insight into the optimization of land resource allocation for policy making. MAPCCL can be defined as the minimum number of cultivated land that can meet the needs of food consumption under certain food self-sufficient rate and land productivity. PICL provides a threshold of cultivated land conservation. If K<1, some cultivated land may be conversed into urban and industrial uses and planting structure may be adjusted for more cash crops. If K>1, cultivated land should not be conversed into other uses or land quality and productivity should be enhanced by means of increasing input and technological innovation.

Key words: cultivated land, minimum area per capita, pressure index, threshold of conservation, China