地理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (7s): 1-7.doi: 10.11821/xb20017s001

• 地学信息图谱 •    下一篇

历史轨迹与知识创新

陈述彭   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2001-06-15 修回日期:2001-07-11 出版日期:2001-12-25 发布日期:2001-12-25
  • 作者简介:陈述彭,第三世界科学院院士,中国科学院院士,欧亚科学院院士,法国地理学会荣誉会员, 中国科学院遥感应用研究所名誉所长,资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室名誉主任。数字地球国际指导委员会委员。 近年致力于开展地球信息科学与数字地球战略研究。
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程前沿项目(CXIOG-D001-01); 国家自然科学基金项目(49801017)

Along the Historcal Way up to Knowledge Innovation

CHEN Shu-peng   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2001-06-15 Revised:2001-07-11 Online:2001-12-25 Published:2001-12-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 498017; Knowledge Innovation Item of CAS, No. CXIOG-D001-01

摘要:

中国保存至今的地图文化遗产为地图科学技术的发展提供了知识创新的源泉。公元3世纪提出的《计里画方》制图原则,影响达千年之久。在卫星遥感和电脑辅助制图普及的20世纪,网络地图东山再起,为解决象素(pixel)与统计单元的匹配,发挥着独特的作用。随着20世纪航空摄影、航空遥感与全球定位系统等科学技术的飞速进步,地图的社会功能正逐步向用户信息服务的末端飘移。20世纪中国科学技术的进步,例如:全数字化测图,数学机械化证明,汉字编辑排版与地图制印系统、原型—模型法科学预测理论与方法,都直接为地图科学的知识创新与技术革命铺平了道路。一种中国特色的《地学信息图谱》的构思正在探索研究之中。

关键词: 地图文化基因, 网格地图, 地图功能的飘移, 地学信息图谱

Abstract:

In China, cartographic cultural inheritance conserved to now can be traced back to inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells of the Shang Dynasty, which was about 3,500 years ago. Its information medium was bones, copper, gold, silk, papers or stone inscriptions, all of which were made of the most advanced materials and craftworks at that time. It’s content included hunting, gardening, grave burying, city and geography, all of these also showed advancement of science and technology, comprehensive social requirement of military administration, traffic and roads, urban planing etc. They supplied a multi-cartography-gene base for world and resource of knowledge innovation for progress of science and technology. Farmland irrigation and “Jing Tian Zhi” (The Square-Fields System) of 6th-4th century B.C. gestated grid rudiment, mapping principal in “Ji Li Hua Fang” (Counting-in-miles and Drawing-in grids) brought forward the 3rd century A.D. affected about 1,000 years from carved stone map of 11th century to chorography and countrywide map of Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. Biorbit system overlaid by latitude-longitude and grid system appeared after biexchangment of oriental and occidental mapping science and technology about 16th century. In the 20th century of remote sensing and computer aided mapping widespread, grid map bobbed up like a cork, it is exerted particular function and created resplendence for solving matching of pixel and statistical cells. With the flying development of science and technology on aerial photograph, Remote Sensing and Global Position System etc. in the 20th century, social function of maps has changed distinctly--it is being drifted step by step to client information server. That is: firstly it is reverse with traditional mapping craftwork program, small-scale maps go ahead, after large scale maps come to heel. Thus it accelerated and simplified enormously mapping craftworks, improved efficiency, advanced adjustment of mapping industry structure, gained valuable time for science prediction and forecast. Secondly it was widely applied in new fields of geosciences, space science, bioscience, and maps were used as graph-thinking method of spatial-temporal analysis, data mining and knowledge discovering. These made delightful progress for discovering new geographical distribution law or situation. Chinese science-technology progress in the 20th century, for example, full digital surveying map, digital mechanical test, Chinese characters edition composition and map-making system, science prediction theory and ways of prototype-model method, all of which directly made roads even for knowledge innovation and technology revolution of cartography. One of thought—“Cartographic methodology for geo-information science” with Chinese characteristic is being explored and researched. Traditional spatial-temporal method has made golden experience and social-economic benefit in geo-science fields. Based on remote sensing image analysis, satellites positioning technology and network technology, depending on integrating of geographical information system, including status, diagnose, model and virtual reality during the course of information flow, “cartographic methodology for geo-information science” will be applied in historical inversion and future prediction, it has been made primary research in solving spatial situation and advantage appraise of eco-environment evaluation, urban growth, resource collocation, its prospect will be very broad.

Key words: culture gene, grid mapping, drifting of map function, cartographic methodology for geo-information science