地理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (3): 316-322.doi: 10.11821/xb200103008

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国沙尘暴的时空分布规律及其源地和移动路径

邱新法1, 曾燕2, 缪启龙2   

  1. 1. 南京大学城市规划与资源学系,南京210009;
    2. 南京气象学院环境科学系,南京210044
  • 收稿日期:2000-09-29 修回日期:2001-04-02 出版日期:2001-05-15 发布日期:2001-05-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家重大基础研究发展规划项目(G1999043505)

Temporal-spatial Distribution as well as Tracks and Source Areas of Sand-Dust Storms in China

QIU Xin fa1, ZENG Yan2, MIAO Qi long 2   

  1. 1. Urban & Resource Department, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Department of Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, Nanjing 210044, China
  • Received:2000-09-29 Revised:2001-04-02 Online:2001-05-15 Published:2001-05-15
  • Supported by:
    National Key Developing Program for Basic Sciences,No.G1999043505

摘要: 利用 1 971~ 1 996年的地面气象记录月报和地面天气图资料,系统分析了我国沙尘暴的年际变化趋势及其时空分布规律,研究了沙尘暴的移动路径和源地。结果表明 :1 971~ 1 996年,除青海、内蒙古的部分地区及北京等地外,我国各地沙尘暴发生的总次数呈明显的下降趋势 ;根据沙尘暴的起源,可将发生在我国的沙尘暴天气过程分为外源型和内源型沙尘暴 2类 ;外源型沙尘暴的移动路径主要包括北路和西路 2条,其中北路沙尘暴入侵我国的范围在西起新疆东部的哈密,东至内蒙古锡林郭勒盟的中蒙边境,西路沙尘暴入侵我国的范围在南疆和北疆的部分地区 ;我国沙尘暴源地主要集中在南疆和北疆的沙漠及其周边地区,甘肃河西走廊和内蒙古干燥沙漠及青海柴达木盆地等。

关键词: 沙尘暴, 时空分布规律, 移动路径, 源地

Abstract: Sand dust storm is a special natural disaster that frequently occurrs in deserts and their surrounding areas. With the data published on Surface Meteorological Monthly Bulletin and Surface Chart during 1971~1996, the temporal spatial distribution and annual variation of sand dust storms are analyzed on the basis of the case study of atmospheric process. Furthermore, the tracks and source areas of sand dust storms are determined assisted with GIS. The results show: Except parts of Qinghai Province, Inner Mongolia and Beijing, the sand dust storms decrease greatly both in time and space in recent decades in China. Sand dust storms occur most frequently in spring, especially in April. According to their source areas, the sand dust storms are classified into two types, i.e. the inner source and outer source sand dust storms. Most of the outer source sand dust storms move along the north and west tracks. For the north track outer source sand dust storms, they always intrude into China across the Sino Mongolian boundary from Hami, a city in the eastern part of Xinjiang, to Xilin Gol, a county in Inner Mongolia, while the west track ones intrude into China both from southern Xinjiang and northern Xinjiang. The source areas of inner source sand dust storms are the Taklimakan Desert and its surrounding areas in southern Xinjiang, southern part of the Junggar Basin in northern Xinjiang, Hexi Corridor in the west of Gansu Province, the dry deserts of Inner Mongolia and the Qaidam Basin in Qinghai.

Key words: Sand dust storm, temporal spatial distribution, tracks, source areas

中图分类号: 

  • P445