地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (6): 729-736.doi: 10.11821/xb200006010

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河下游游荡段河道平面形态与河势变化趋势预测

陆中臣1, 陈劭锋2, 陈浩3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,北京100085;
    2. 中国科学院科技政策与管理科学研究所,北京100080;
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2000-06-15 修回日期:2000-07-20 出版日期:2000-11-15 发布日期:2000-11-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目资助(GI999043604)

The Evolutionary Tendency Forecast of Channel Morphology and River State of the Wandering Braided Rivers in the Lower Yellow River

LU Zhong chen1, CHEN Shao feng2, CHEN Hao3   

  1. 1. Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100083, China;
    2. Institute of Policy and Management Science, CAS, Beijing 100080, China;
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Reseach, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2000-06-15 Revised:2000-07-20 Online:2000-11-15 Published:2000-11-15
  • Supported by:
    973 project of Ministry of Science,No.G199904360

摘要: 黄河下游河道平面形态与河势演变,从 2 0世纪 60年代起,地貌界就用地图法和航片资料作过不同程度的研究。随着资料的不断积累,该项研究得到逐步的深化。“八五”期间,水利界又对主流线作了深入分析,结果表明 :各家所得结论不同,需要作进一步的分析讨论。我们认为 :从长远的角度来看,小浪底水库清水下泄期间,黄河下游游荡性河段不对称的河谷形态不会改变 ;在继承性新构造运动造成的地壳向南掀沉、科氏力和人类活动的综合影响下,主流线总体上仍呈南摆趋势 ;清水冲刷不会导致河型彻底转化 ;河道整治工程虽然能够限制主流的摆动幅度和弱化河道的游荡强度,对河势的影响较大,但是根本不可能改变上述河道平面形态的长期演变趋势。

关键词: 游荡型河道, 河道平面形态, 河势变化, 趋势预测, 黄河下游

Abstract: From the 1960s, the evolution of channel morphology and river state in the lower Yellow River has been studied to different degrees with mapping methods and aerial photos by academic circles of geomorphology. With increasing accumulation of research materials, this study has been gradually deepening. During “the Eighth Five Year Plan”, a further analysis of mainstream line in the lower Yellow River has been carried out by hydrological circles and the results indicated that this status must be further analyzed and discussed because of different conclusions. In our study, the following conclusions are drawn: Firstly, the asymmetrical channel morphology in the lower Yellow River is a geological evolutionary process and a kind of synthesized result influenced by such factors as tilting down from north to south caused by neotectonic movement inheriting from old structural movement, coriolis force, recent human activities and geomorphological factor. Recent human activities including construction of the Xiaolangdi reservoir will not change the asymmetrical pattern of the channel in the lower Yellow River, but facilitate further development of asymmetrical channel morphology. Secondly, a kind of deflective resultant force southward caused by impact of asymmetrical channel in the lower Yellow River on the water body leads to continually stronger erosion to the southern bank of the river than to the northern. Thus, the tendency of southward shifting and meandering of the mainstream line will not change. The same is true of the Xiaolangdi reservoir after the completion of the project. Thirdly, according to empirical analysis of the Sanmenxia reservoir, there is an indication that although the wandering intensification of the channel was influenced by reservoir to some extent, the channel pattern didn’t change completely. It is expected that construction of the Xiaolangdi reservoir will not change the channel pattern in the lower Yellow River. Lastly, although construction works for harnessing the lower Yellow River channel can control meandering range and weakening wandering intensification of the channel, they cannot change the evolutionary tendency of channel morphology above mentioned ultimately.

Key words: channel morphology, change of river state, tendency forecast, lower Yellow River