地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (5): 577-586.doi: 10.11821/xb200005007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

澜沧江-湄公河水电梯级开发的生态影响

陈丽晖1, 何大明2   

  1. 1. 南京大学城市与资源系,南京210093;
    2. 云南省地理研究所,昆明650223
  • 收稿日期:2000-04-10 修回日期:2000-07-06 出版日期:2000-09-15 发布日期:2000-09-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金“九五”重点项目(49631020);云南省自然科学基金“九五”重点项目(96D012Z)

The Ecological Impacts of Hydropower Cascade Development in Lancang-Mekong River

CHEN Li hui1, HE Da ming 2   

  1. 1. Development of Urban & Resources, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Yunnan Institute of Geography, Kunming 650223, China
  • Received:2000-04-10 Revised:2000-07-06 Online:2000-09-15 Published:2000-09-15
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China No.49631020;the Key Program of Natural science Foundation of Yunnan Province,No.96D012Z

摘要: 针对次澜沧江-湄公河区域快速增长的能源需求,以及国际社会对该流域水电开发的经济、生态和社会问题的关注,集中分析了流域干流水电梯级开发对生态环境的综合影响,提出了能满足各流域国对能源、防洪、灌溉、水生生态保护和减轻海水倒灌等多方面需求的对策措施。

关键词: 澜沧江-湄公河, 水电梯级开发, 生态影响

Abstract: The Lancang-Mekong is one of the most famous international rivers in the world. It flows through six countries. There are plentiful hydraulic resources in the basin. Since the mid 1980s, as a main development subject, attention has been drawn to large scale damming and its effect on the environment. Hydropower investigation had been begun since the late 1950s in Lancang Jiang (the upper Mekong River). Hydropower cascade of 14 dams was planned in the early 1980s. At the end of the 1980s, planned as the key development area and hydropower development base in China, the alternative cascade of 8 dams has been chosen, in which, one had been finished, one is under construction and nearly finished, and two will be built soon. All these actions have caused the widely attention and been criticized in the world, but some of these criticisms are not true, especial for the Xiaowang dam, the highest dam in the world, which will be constructed by 2002. Based on 40 years’ hydrological data series, comparing the hydropower cascade indexes and simulated adjusting of the runoff, This paper draw up the conclusion as following: (1) The hydrawic resource concentrates in the mainstream in Lancang river and the tributaries in lower Mekong; (2) The sediment of the lower Mekong mainly comes from northern part of the Laos, not from Lancang river; (3) No essential harms to the sediment of the Lower Mekong and its delta area, if hydropower cascade developed on the Lancang mainstream; (4) The comprehensive countermeasures should be put into practice, so as to reduce the ecological impacts of hydropower cascade development: hydropower cascade focusing on the mainstream of Lancang and tributaries of the Lower Mekong, and canceling all cascades in lower Mekong, mainstream facilitating the integrated power network construction; It will meet the energy demand, reduce the cost, the inundated land, the residents and the harm to water environment. So it will benefit the irrigation development, flooding control, salt control, navigation, and ecological conservation the lower Mekong river basin.

Key words: Lancang Mekong River, hydropower cascade development, ecological impacts

中图分类号: 

  • X820.3