地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (2): 243-250.doi: 10.11821/xb200002013

• 论文 • 上一篇    

长江河口咸潮入侵规律及淡水资源利用

茅志昌1, 沈焕庭1, 徐彭令2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学河口海岸研究所;河口海岸国家重点实验室,上海200062;
    2. 上海市自来水公司,上海200002
  • 收稿日期:1999-06-02 修回日期:1999-10-23 出版日期:2000-03-15 发布日期:2000-03-15

The Pattern of Saltwater Intruding into the Changjiang Estuary and the Utilization of Freshwater Resources

MAO Zhi chang1, SHEN Huan ting1, XU Peng ling2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062;
    2. Shanghai Water Works Corporation, Shanghai200002
  • Received:1999-06-02 Revised:1999-10-23 Online:2000-03-15 Published:2000-03-15

摘要: 长江河口系多级分汊潮汐河口,其盐水入侵有外海入侵、倒灌、浅滩通道水体交换及漫滩归槽等4种形式,时间上有周日、朔望、洪枯季、年际等变化特点,南支—南港河段纵向上存在3条盐度梯度急剧变化分界线,形成其特有的盐度时空变化规律。研究成果对宝钢水源长江引水方案的形成起了重要作用,并为陈行水库的选址、库容设计提供了基础数据。在长江河口建库,研究工作的重点是推算最长连续取不到合格水的天数,它是确定库容的关键数据。

关键词: 分汊潮汐河口, 盐度时空变化规律, 淡水资源利用, 避咸蓄淡水库, 长江河口

Abstract: The geomorphic features of the Changjiang estuary are characterized by the multi order branching. The saltwater intrusion has the following four distinct forms:direct intrusion from the outer sea;saltwater exchange by shoal passages;saltwater downstream from other waterways;saltwater intrusion by tidal flooding. Temportal changes in the salinity of the Changjiang estuary have daily, semimonthly, seasonal and yearly variation. There exists the sharp three demarcation lines of salinity gradient along the South Branch-South Channel. Two main problems had to be solved before building reservoirs of avoide saltwater and store freshwater in the Changjiang estuary. One is to calculate the longest duration that the chlorinity exceeds 250?10 6 in the water resources area, which is the criterion value for determining the storage capacity of reservoirs. Mathematical methods including the cybernetics, the frequecncy spected analysis and mathematical modelling are adopted here to get more correct times when the chlorinity exceeds 250?10 6 . And the other is to determine reasonably site of the pumping station and the height of water intake of water pumps from the river bed. The above problems can be solved after understanding the pattern of temporal and spatial variation of the saltwater intrusion in the Changjiang estuary. The above conclusions have played an important role in forming the reservoir scheme of the Baoshan lron and Steel Plant, and supplied basic data for selection of the postion and storage capacity for the Chenhang reservoir.

Key words: Tidal branching estuaries, Pattern of salinity vary with time and space, Utilization of freshwater resources, Reservoirs of avoide saltwater and store freshwater, Changjiang Estuary

中图分类号: 

  • P343.5