地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (2): 191-199.doi: 10.11821/xb200002007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔里木盆地南缘自然与人文历史变迁的耦合关系

熊黑钢1, 钟巍1, 塔西甫拉提1, 海米提1, 努尔巴依1, 高村弘毅2, 铃木裕一2, 岛津2   

  1. 1. 新疆大学地理系,乌鲁木齐830046;
    2. 日本立正大学地球环境科学部
  • 收稿日期:1999-09-19 修回日期:1999-11-19 出版日期:2000-03-15 发布日期:2000-03-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(49761007);日本文部省科学基金;国家重点基础研究资助项目(G1999043508)

The Coupling Relationship between the Nature and the Man in South Edge of Tarim Basin

XIONG Hei gang1, ZHONG Wei1, TashPolat Tiyip1, Haimiti1, Nuerbayi1, Hiroki Takmura2, Yuichi Suzuki 2   

  1. 1. Geography Department of Xinjiang University, Wulumuqi 830046;
    2. Faculty of Geo Environmental Science, Rissho University, Japan
  • Received:1999-09-19 Revised:1999-11-19 Online:2000-03-15 Published:2000-03-15
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.49761007;Science Foundation of Education Ministry,Japan;Great base project of China,No.G1999043508

摘要: 通过对塔里木盆地南缘自然与人文变迁的耦合关系研究,表明其自然生态环境演化、人文历史变迁是自然因素与人文力量综合作用的结果。若气候湿润、水量丰沛,则有利于绿洲经济、文化、生产的迅速发展提高。反之,则环境恶化、沙漠化过程加快、绿洲废弃。早期自然环境因素的影响所占比重大,而后期人文力量起主导作用。自然条件决定了环境的特征及其演化的内在基础,人类活动是本地最活跃、最能动的因素。这在自然生态环境特别脆弱的地区表现得更为明显。

关键词: 自然环境, 人文历史, 塔里木盆地南缘

Abstract: Being influenced by the physical environment, the mankind has moved in large scale along south edge of Tarim basin of Xinjiang. The environmental change information of each time have been recorded by the strata of the different deposits in this special region and the many historic sites of ages, and then the routes of mankind movement can be delineated. The man hunted animals and picked fruits at the foot of the mountains in the Stone Age. Then the optimum provided a favorable subsistence environment for mankind. At this time, the man, with the tool of the production evolving, moved forward to the center of Taklamakan desert along the river in 4000~6000 a BP. With the tools of production improved and the product forces raised, the ability of mankind taming nature was great and the scope of activities was expanded quickly in 2500~4000 a BP. Some oasis cities were built in desert and oasis culture was developed. In the 2th century, the West Han Dynasty controlled the center China and unified the west regions. The steady society provided a suitable condition for the economic development. The Yutian country, which was located in the south edge of Tarim basin, became one of the politic, economic cultural centers in the 3~4th century. After wart the frequent wars destroyed the stable phase and many old countries were abandoned though the tools and skill of product developed. The 7~9th century was cold and wet. The scale of many ruins showed that the nature and human condition were suitable for man to live and develop. With the lapse of time the climate became drier. Mankind living was deficient in water resources and the desert expanded greatly. The man felled trees, destroyed the environment. At the same time the warfare was uninterrupted and the people had no means of livinghood. The development of the physical environment and the changes of human history are results of comprehensive effect of natural factors and mankind. In the wet climate, full water, unitary state, stables society and national concord period, the economy, culture and production of the oasis developed very quickly. Otherwise, the environment worsened, the oasis was discarded and the process of desert is quick. In the early period, the natural environment factors played a big part in it, while in the later, the mankind had main effect on it. Natural condition decided both the feature of the environment and the initial foundation of its evolution. The trend that mankind kept on moving up river was chiefly influenced by physical environment. The activity of mankind was the activist factor, sometimes was the decisive factor deterring the course, feature and type of natural environment. That was indicated more obviously in the district where the physical environment was extremely unstable.

Key words: Physical environment, Man history, South edge of Tarim basin

中图分类号: 

  • P941.71